A Comprehensive Review of the Diagnostic and Treatment Methods for Ovarian Cancer

Michelle Davis

Abstract


Ovarian cancer is amongst the most life-threatening malignancy of the female reproductive system, whereas 90% of those ovarian cancers are epithelial with an overall poor five-year survival rate of 44% across all stages and all races [1]–[2], [31]. This paper aims to review the current treatment and diagnostic strategies for ovarian cancer [3]. Using grounded substantial research, multiple figures were developed to show the relations of ovarian cancer diagnostics and ovarian cancer therapeutics.  It is a great start to look into what may be causing most patients to become resistant to the current standard of care, platinum-based chemotherapeutics, for ovarian cancer [4]. A comprehensive literature review will be used to understand the genetic basis of the disease and possible cancer growth patterns, so we could possibly introduce better diagnostics and therapeutics [5]. The findings show that there are a variety of treatments options other than the standard of care, platinum-based therapy [6]. Nanoparticle encapsulation therapy is one way that has been approved by the FDA to therapeutically treat ovarian cancer without the platinum resistant side effects [7]. Also, the discovery of different diagnostics for ovarian cancer can help with better individualized treatments for patients with different forms of ovarian cancer [8]. Currently, the only serous diagnostic test for the detection of ovarian cancer is high levels of Cancer Antigen 125 (CA-125), which is only shown in 50% of early staged ovarian cancers [16]. The main treatment option for ovarian cancer is platinum-based drugs, in which most cases of patients with ovarian cancer will become resistant. Detecting and treating ovarian cancer while the cells are small, contained, and still in the early stages in vivo still remains to be a challenge [9]. Here, we will demonstrate the bioelectrical interactions of the ovarian cancer cells fused with the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the use of an MRI. The findings demonstrate that the diagnostic method for the early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer requires the use of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with specific ligand external profiles as a contrast reagent to make the small-sized ovarian cancer cells appear more visible under MRI. 


Keywords


Ovarian cancer; Platinum-based Therapy; Biomarker diagnostics; Imaging; Nanotherapeutics

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2018.3.2.555

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Copyright (c) 2018 Michelle Davis