Formulation of White Board Marker Ink Using Locally Sourced Raw Materials

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Kenneth K Dagde

  •   Godbless Nwosa

  •   Chukwuemeka Ukpaka

Abstract

This research work was conducted to demonstrate the mechanism of white board marker ink production using locally sourced raw materials such as charcoal and used lube oil. In the production of the ink, the charcoal served as a pigment, used lube oil served as the primary binder or resin, ethanol served as solvent and gum Arabic served as an additive. The charcoal was obtained from processing of Mango, Oil bean (Ugba) and rubber trees, which were further crushed to their finest particles respectively and the used lube oil was obtained from mechanical engineering servicing unit of automobile engines. The crushed charcoal samples were characterized to determine the physio-chemical properties of some mineral elements such as Ca, Cu, P, K, C, S, N. however the mineral component that controlled the production of this ink was the Carbon content. The different ink samples were formulated in terms of odour, colour, hazardous reaction, pH, density and viscosity and compared with that of international standards. Results obtained showed a good match, indicating the reliability and the quality of the produced white board marker ink. The pH results for Ugba ink = 5.43, Rubber ink = 6.79, and Mango = 7.41. Empirical models were used to predict concentration with that of experimental values, a plot of concentration against time in terms of production yield revealed that the order of magnitude was rubber>Ugba>Mango whereas in terms of penetration and writing ability Ugba>rubber>mango. Furthermore, the research demonstrates the significance of the characteristics of the charcoal and the used lube oil in the quality of the end product. Finally, the research revealed that ink produced from the oil bean (ugba) charcoal and lube oil was best in terms of write-ability and quality in the production of white board marker ink.


Keywords: charcoal; production; marker ink; used lube oil

References

Yuuko Suzuki (2003) Introduction to Japanese calligraphy: search press. Revised and published January 28th 2017 by schiffer publishing. Hard cover 80 pages.

Bokonon-Ganta, A.H., de Groote, H., and Neuenschwander, P., 2002, “Socio Econmic Impact of Biological Control of Mango Mealybug in Benin,” Agr.Ecosyst. Envtron., 93, 367-378.

Nansaior, A., Patanothai, A., Rambo, A. T. & Simarks, S. (2013). The sustainability of Biomass Energy Acquisition by Households in Urbanizing Communities in Northeast Thailand,” Biomass. Bioenergy., 52, 113 – 121.

Enujiugha, V. N. & Akanbi, C. T. (2005). Compositional changes in African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seeds during thermal processing. Pak. J. Nutr., 4: 27-31.

Ikediobi, C. O. (1981). Amino and fatty acid composition of Pentaclethra macrophylla and Treculia africana seeds. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 58: 30-31.

Akintayo, E. T. & Bayer, E. (2002). Characterization and some possible uses of Plukenetia conophora and Adenopus breviflorus seeds and seed oils. Bioresour. Technol., 85: 95-97.

Mooibroek, H, & Cornish, K. (2000). Alternative sources of natural rubber. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 53(4):355–65.

Van, B. J. B. & Poirier, Y. (2007). Establishment of new crops for the production of natural rubber. Trends Biotechnol 25(11):522–9.

Lieberei, R. (2007). South American leaf blight of the rubber tree (Hevea spp.): new steps in plant domestication using physiological features and molecular markers. Ann Bot.;100(6):1125–42.

Woods, M. & Woods, M. (2000). Ancient Communication: Form Grunts to Graffiti. pp 51-52. Minneapolis: Runestone Press; an imprint of Lerner Publishing Group.

Gottsegen, M. D. (2006). The Painter's Handbook: A Complete Reference Page 30, New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-3496-8.

Bosworth, C. E. (2004). A Mediaeval Islamic Prototype of the Fountain Pen? Journal of Semitic Christian Science Monitor ‘Think ink’ September 21.

Shreve, R. N. (1967). Chemical Process Industries, Third Edition, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1967.

Scott, A. C. & Damblon, F. (2010). Charcoal Taphonomy ans Significancein Geology, Botany and Archeology. Palaeogeogr. Palaeocl., 291, 1-10.

Novak, M. & Wilensky, U. (2007). Net logo/connected chemistry/solid combustion model..

Ramos, G., & Perez-Marquez, D. (2014). Design of Semi- Static Concentrator fpr Charcoal Production. Ernerg. Proc., 57, 2167-2175.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
[1]
Dagde, K., Nwosa, G. and Ukpaka, C. 2019. Formulation of White Board Marker Ink Using Locally Sourced Raw Materials. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. 4, 3 (Mar. 2019), 107-114. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2019.4.3.1108.