Source Area Weathering, Paleo-Environment and Paleo-Climatic Conditions of Soils from Bitumen Rich Ode Irele Area of Ondo State, Nigeria


  •   Romanus Ayoola Obasi

  •   Henry Y. Madukwe

  •   Temitope Olaosun


The study is aimed at determining the source-weathering, paleo-redox and paleoclimatic conditions of soil from Ode Irele area of Ondo State, Nigeria. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and the Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry ICP-MS) analyses wereusd to determine the major, trace and rare earth element compositios used for the study. The Chemical index of alteration (CIA), Chemical index of weathering (CIW), Plagioclase index of alteration (PIA), Mineralogical index of alteration (MIA), Th/U nd a plot of CIA against Al2O3 as well as the A-CN-K Ternary diagram suggest a high degree of weathering of the source rocks. The positive correlation between Al2O3 with TiO2, K2O, Fe2O3 and MgO implies that they occur in clay minerals formed from weathering. The average K2O/Al2O3 ratios of the investigated samples is ≈0.006, which suggests prevalence of clay minerals relative to other minerals. Low U/Th ratio ranging between 0.14 and 0.50 (average 0.18) relative to PAAS (0.21) and UCC (0.26) suggests deposition under oxic conditions. V/Vi + Ni ratios indicate suboxic to anoxic environment of deposition. However, plots of V/V+ Ni vs Ni/Co and V/Cr vs Ni/Co indicate oxic, dysoxic and suboxic to anoxic environments all suggesting deposition under oxic and suboxic conditions. The Ode Irele sediments was deposited in low saline water with a strong continental rather than marine influence in an arid and semi-arid climatic condition; the low average ratio of P2O5/Al2O3 (0.014) is in unison with freshwater environments.

Keywords: Ode Irele, Paleo-Redox, Paleoclimate, Paleo-Environments


Ajayi, T.R., Oyawoye, A.A., Islander,F.Y., Asubiojo, O.L., Klein, D.E and Adediran A.I.Trace and rare earth elements geochemistry of Oshosun sediments of Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria. J. Applied Science, 6: 2067-2076, 2006.

Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M., McLennan, S.M. and Keays, R.R. Effect of chemical weathering and sorting on the petrogenesis of siliciclastic sediments, with implications for provenance studies. J. Geol., 104: 525–542, 1996.

Roser, B. P. and Korsch, R. J. Provenance signatur of sandstone mudstone suite determined using discriminant function analysis of major element data. Chem. Geol., 67: 119-139, 1988.

McLennan, S.M., Taylor, S.R. Sedimentary rocks and crustal evolution: Tectonic setting and secular trends. Journal of Geology, 99, 1-21, 1991.

McLennan, S.M. Weathering and global denudation. J. Geol., 101: p.295–303, 1993

Johnsson, M.J. and Basu, A. Processes Controlling the Composition of Clastic Sediments. Geological Society of America, 284(Special Paper), p.342, 1993.

Condie, K.C. Chemical composition and evolution of the upper continental crust: contrasting results fromArmstrong-Altrin J.S, Verma S.P, Madhavaraju J, Lee Y.I, Ramasamy S (2003): Geoche mistry of Late Miocene Kudankula Limestones, South India International Geology Review, 45, 16-26, 1993.

Fedo C.M, Eriksson K, Krogstad, E.J. Geochemistry of shale from the Archean (~3.0 Ga) Buhwa Greenstone, Zimbabwe: implications for provenance and source area weathering. Geochim Cosmochim Acta.60: 1751-1763, 1996.

Fedo, C.M., Young, G.M., Nesbitt, H.W. and Hanchar, J.M. Potassic and sodic metasomatism in the Southern Province of the Canadian Shield: Evidence from the Paleoproterozoic Serpent Formation, Huronian Supergroup Canad Precambrian Research, 84, 17-36, 1997.

Cullers R.L and Podkovyro V.N. Geochemistry of the Mesoproterozoic Lakhanda shales in southeastern Yakutia, Russia: Implications for mineralogical and provenance control, and recycling J Precambrian Research. 104, 77–93, 2000.

Bhatt, M.I.and Ghosh, S.K. Geochemistry of 2.51Ga old Rampur Group pelites, western Himalayas: Implications from their provenance and weathering. Pre cambrian Research, 108, 1-16, 2001.

Cullers R.L. The control on major and trace elements variation of shales, siltstones, and sandstones of Pennsylvanian-Permia age from uplifted continental blocks in Colorado to platform sediments in Kansas, USA. Geochem Cosmochim. Acta.58: 4955-4972, 1994.

Jones, B. and Manning, D. A. C. (), “Comparison of geological indices used for the interpretation of palaeoredox conditions in ancient mudstones”, Chemical Geology 111, 111- 129, 1994.

Nath B. N, Bau M Ramalingeswara Rao B and Rao C.M. Trace and Rare Earth Elemental Variation in Arabian Sea Sediments through a Transect across the Oxygen Minimum Zone. Geochimimica Cosmochimica Acta, 61, 2375-2388, 1997.

Madhavaraju J and Ramasamy S. Rare elements in limestones kallankurichchi Formation Ariyalur Group, Tiruchi rapalli Cretaceous. Tamil Nadu. Journal of the Geological Society of India. 54, 291-301, 1999.

Cullers R. L. Implications of elemental concentrations for provenance, redox conditions, and metamorphic studies of shale and limestones ne Pueblo, CO, USA, Chem. Geology, 191, p.305, 2002.

Armstrong-Altrin J.S, Verma S.P, Madhavaraju J, Lee Y.I, Ramasamy S. Geochemistry of Late Miocene Kudankula Limestones, South India International Geology Review, 45, 16-26, 2003.

Dobrzinski, N; Bahlhurg, H; Strauss, H and Zhang, Q. Geochemical climate proxies appl ied to the Neoproter ozoic glacial succesion on the Yangtze Platform, South China, in Je nkins, G et al, (eds), The extreme Prot erozic: Geology, Geochemistry and Climate. American Geophysical Unions Monograph Series. 146: 13-32, 2004.

Rimmer S. M. Geochemical Paleoredox Indicators in Devonian-Mississippian Black Shales, Central Appalachian Basin (USA). Chemica Geology 206, 373-391, 2004.

Kroonenberg, S.B. Effects of provenance, sorting and weathering on the geochemistry of fluvial sands from different tectonic and climatic environments: Proceedings of the 29th International Geological Congress, Part A, 69- 81, 1994.

Zimmermann, U and Bahlburg, H. Provenance analysis and tectonic setting of the Ordovician clastic deposits in the southern Puna Basin, NW Argentina: Sedimentology, 50, 1079–1104, 2003.

Armstrong-Altrin J.S., Lee Y.I., Verma S.P.,and Ramasamy S. Geochemistry sandstone from the Upper Kudankulam Formation, southern India: Implications for provenance, weathering, and tectonic setting J. Journal of Sedimentary Research. 74, 285– 297, 2004.

Jackson, S.E., Longerich, H.P., Dunning, G.R and Fryer, B.J. The application of Laser- ablation micro- probe-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LAM-ICP-MS) to in situ trace element determination in minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 1049-1064, 1992.

Norman, M. D., Pearson, N. J., Sharma, A. & Griffin, W. L. Quantitative analysis of trace elements in geological materials by laser by ablation ICPMS:

instrumental operating conditions and calibration.values of NIST glasses. Geostandards Newsletter 20, 247–261, 1996.

Norman, M. D. Melting and metasomatism in the continental lithosphere: laser ablation ICPMS analyses of minerals in spinel, lherzolites from eastern Australia. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology. 130, 240- 255, 1998.

Taylor S.R. and McLennan S.M. The Continental Crust:Its Composition an Evolution. Blackwell, Oxford. 134-148, 1985.

Jones, H.A and Hockey, R.D. The Geology of part of Southwestern, Nigeria. Bull. Geol. Surv.Nigeria.31: p101, 1964.

EtuEfeotor, J.O and Akpokodie, E.G. Aquifer systems of the Niger Delta. Jour.Mining Geology, 26 (2): 279-285, 1990.

Obaje, N. G., Musa, M. K. Odoma, A. N. and Hamza, H.The Bid Basin in north-central Nigeria: sedimentology and petroleum geology.Journal of Petroleum and Gas Exploration Research, Vol. 1(1) p. 001-013, 2011.

Mclennan, S.M., Taylor, S.R. & Eriksson, K.A. Geochemistry of Archean shalesfrom the Pilbara Supergroup Western Australia. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 47: 1211–1222, 1993.

Syafri, I., Sukiyah, E. & Hendarmawan. The chemical a mineralogical characteristics of Quaternary volcanic rock weathering profile in the Southern Part of Bandung Area, West Java, Indonesia. International Journal of Science and Research 3: 79–85, 2014.

Dhannoun, H.Y. & Al-Dlemi, A.M.S. The relation between Li, V, P2O5, and Al2O3 content in marls and mudstones as indicators of environment of deposition. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 6: 817–823, 2013.

Ullah, K., Arif, M. and Shah, M.T. Petrography and geochemistry of the Kamli Formation, southwestern Kohat plateau, Pakistan:implications for paleoclimate of the Western Himalayas. Turkish Journal of Earth Science 24: 276–288, 2015.

Cox, R., Lowe, D.R. & Cullers, R.L. The influence of sediment recycling and basement composition on evolution of mudrock chemistry in the southwestern United States. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 59(14): 2919–2940, 1995.

Yan Y, Xia B, Lin C.X, Hu X.Q, Yan P and Zhang F . Geochemistry of the sedimentary rocks from the Nanxiong Basin, South China and implications for provenance, paleoenvironment and paleoclimate at the K/T boundary. Sediment Geol. 197: 127-140, 2007.

Nagarajan R, Madhavaraju J, Nagendra R, Armstrong- Altrin J.S. and Moutte J Geochemistry of Neoproterozoic Shales of Formation, Bhima Basin, Northern Karnataka, for Provenance and Paleo-Redox Conditions. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas, 24, 150-160, 2007.

Kirschbaum, A., Martinez, E., Pettinari, G. and Herrero, S. Weathering profiles in granites Sierra Notre (Cordoba, Argentina). Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 19, 479–493, 2005.

Goldberg, K. and Munir Humayun, M. The applicability of the Chemical Index of Alteration as a paleoclimatic indicator: An example from the Permian of the Paraná Basin, Brazil. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 293, 175-183, 2002.

Nesbitt, H.W., Young, G.M. Formation and diagenesis of weathering profiles. J. Geol., 97: p.129–147, 1989.

Nesbitt H.W, and Yound G.M. Early Proterozoic climates and plate motions inferred from major element chemistry of Lutites. Nature.Vom.299: 715-717, 1982.

Duzgoren-Aydin, N. S., Aydin, A. and Malpas J.Reassessment of chemical weathering indices: case study on pyroclastic rocks of Hong Kong. Engineering Geology, 63: p.99–119, 2002.

Harnois, L. The C.I.W. index: a new chemical index of weathering. Sedimentary Geology, 55: p.319–322, 1988.

McLennan, S.M. Weathering and global denudation. J. Geol., 101: p.295–303, 1993.

Mongelli, G.,Cullers, R.L and Muelheisen, S.Geochemistry of Late Cretaceous Oligocenic shales from the Varicolori Formation, southern Apennines, Italy: implications for mineralogical grain-size control and provenance. Eur. J. Mineral., 8: p.733–754, 1996.

Fedo C. M., Nesbitt H.W., and Young G.M. Unravelling the effects of potassium metasomatism in sedimetary rock sand paleoweathering conditions and provenance. Jour.of Geology.23, 921- 923, 1995.

Potter, P.E., Maynard J.P and Pryor, W.A. Sedimentolog of shale: Study guide and reference Source. 2nd Ed, Spring-Verlag, Berlin ISBN,13:9780387904306. P.306, 1980.

Gu, X.X., Liu, J.M., Zheng, M.H., Tang, J.X., and Qt, L.Provenance and Tectonic settings of the Proterozoic turbidites in Hunan, South China: Geochemical Evidence: Journal of Sedimentary Research, v. 72, 393– 407, 2002.

Roy, P.D., Caballreroa, M., Lozanoc, R and Smykatz- Klossd, W. Geochemistry of Late quaternary sediments from Tecocomulco lake, central Mexico: Implication tochemical weathering and provenance. Chemie der Erde, 68: 383-393, 2008.

Voicu, G., Bardoux, M., Harnois, L, and Grepeau, R. Lthological and geochemical environment of igneous and sedimentary rocks at Omai gold mine, Guyana, South America. Exploration and Mining Geology, 6: pp.153-170, 1997.

McLennan S.M, Taylor S.R, McCulloch M.T and Maynard, J. B. Geochemical and Nd- Sr Isotopic Composition of Deep Sea Turbidites: Crustal Evolution and Plate Tectonic Associations. Geochimimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 54, 2015-2050, 1990.

Bauluz, B., Mayayo,M. J., Fermandez-Nieto, C and Lopez J.M. G. Geochemistry of Precambrian and Paleozoi siliciclastic rocks from the Iberian Range N.E (Spain): Implication for source-area weathering, sorting, provenance and tectonic setting. Chem Geol.,168: 135- 150, 2000.

Joo, Y.J; Lee, Y; and Baib, Z. Provenance of the Qingshuijian Formation (Late Carboniferous), N.E China; Implications for tectonic processes in the northern margin of the north China block. Sediment. Geol., 7: 97- 114, 2005.

Jones, B. and Manning, D. A. C. Comparison of geological indices used for the interpretation of palaeoredox conditions in ancient mudstones”, Chemical Geology 111, 111-129, 1994

McKirdy D.M, Hall P.A, Nedin C, Halverson G.P, Michaelsen B.H, Jago J.B, Gehling J.G, Jenkins R.J.F. Paleoredox status and thermal alteration of the lower Cambrian (Series 2) Emu Bay Shale Lagerstätte, South Australia. Australian J Earth Sci..58: 259-272, 2011.

Armstrong-Altrin, J. S., Machain-Castillo, M. L., Rosales-Hos, L., Carranza- Edwards, A. Sanchez- Cabeza, J. and Ruiz- Ferdinandez, A. C. Provenance and depositional history of continental slope sediments in the Southwestern Gulf of Mexico unraveled by geochemical analysis. Continental shelf Res, 95: 15-26, 2015.

Hu, J, Li, Q, Li, J, Huang, J. and Ge, D. (2015). Geochemical characteristics and depositional environment of the Middle Permian mudstones from central Qiangtang Basin, Northern Tibet. Geol. Jour (in press), 2015.

Nath B. N, Bau M Ramalingeswara Rao B and Rao C.M.Trace and Rare Earth Elemental Variation in Arabian Sea Sediments through a Transect across the Oxygen Minimum Zone. Geochimimica Cosmochimica Acta,. 61, 2375-2388, 1997.

Bjorlykke, K. Geochemical and mineralogical influence of Ordovician island arcs on epicontinental clastic sedimentation: a study of Lower Palaeozoic sedimentation in the Oslo region, Norway”, Sedimentology, 21(2), 251-272, 1974.

Dypvik, H. Geochemical compositions and depositional conditions of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Yorkshire clays. 1984.

Dill, H. Metallogenesis of early Paleozoic graptolite shales from the Graefenthal Horst (northern Bavaria- Federal Republic of Germany”, Economic Geology, 81, 889-903, 1986.

Brumsack, H. J. The trace metal content of recent organic carbon-rich sediments implications for Cretaceous black shale formation: Palaeogeography, Palaeoceanography Palaeoecology, 232 (2–4), 344–361, 2006.

Shaw T.J., Geiskes J.M., and Jahnke R.A. Early diagenesis in differing depositional environments: The response of transition metals in pore water. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 54, 1233–1246, 1990.

Kimura, H. and Watanabe, Y. Oceanic anoxia at the Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary Geology, 21, 995-998, 2001.

Hetzel, A., Böttcher, M. E., Wortmann, U. G., Brumsack, H. Paleo-redox conditions during OAE 2 reflected in Demerara Rise sediment geochemistry (ODP Leg 207)”, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 273, 302–328, 2009.

Hallberg, R.O., and Халлберг, Р.O. A Geochemical Method for Investigation of Paleoredox Conditions in S ediments Геохимический метод исследований условий палеоредокса в осадках”, Ambio Special Report 4, 139-14

Hatch, J. R. and Leventhal, J. S. Relationship between inferred redox potential of the depositional environment and geochemistry of the Upper Pennsylvanian (Missourian) Stark Shale Member of the Dennis Limestone, Wabaunsee County,Kansas, U.S.A, Chemical Geology 99, 65–82, 1992.

Canfield D.E. A new model for Proterozoic ocean chemistry. Nature. 396: 450-4, 1988.

Suttner L.J. and Dutta P.K. Alluvial sandstone composition and paleoclimat 1. Framework mineralogy, Journal of Sedimentary Petrology. 56, 326–345, 1986

Liu Y.J., Cao L.M., Li Z.L., Wang H.N., Chu T.Q.,and Zhang J.R. Element of geochemistry Science Press, Beijing, 283–372 (in Chinese), 1984.

Deng, H.W. and Qian K. Analysis on sedimentary geochemistry and environment”, Science Technology Press, Gansu, 15–85, 1993.

Wang, A.H. Discriminant effect of sedimentary environment by the Sr/Ba ratio of differen existing forms. Acta Sedimentol. Sin 14, 168–173, 1996.

Galarraga, F., Reategui, K., Martïnez, A., MartínezM M.,Llamas, J., and Márquez G. V/Ni ratio as a parameter in palaeo environmental characterisation of nonmature medium-crude oils from several Latin American basins, Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 61, 9-14, 2008.

Englund, J.O and Jorgensen, P. A chemical classification system for argillaceous sediments and factor affecting their composition Geol. Stockholm Forh. 95, 87-97, 1973.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Obasi, R., Madukwe, H. and Olaosun, T. 2019. Source Area Weathering, Paleo-Environment and Paleo-Climatic Conditions of Soils from Bitumen Rich Ode Irele Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. 4, 3 (Mar. 2019), 59-67. DOI: