Leaching of iron from ilmenite ore using a binary solution (HCl-NaNO3) was investigated. The raw ilmenite ore sample was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and X-ray Flourescence (XRF) techniques. The influence of acid concentration, oxidant concentration, particle size, solution temperature, stirring speed and liquid-to-solid ratios on the extent of dissolution was examined. The experimental data obtained at various process parameter conditions were tested in six kinetics models: shrinking core model’s diffusion through liquid film model(DTLF), diffusion through product layer model (DTPL), surface chemical reaction model (SCR)); mixed kinetics model (MKM), Jander (three dimensional) model and Kröger and Ziegler model. The crystalline morphology of the sample was displayed by the SEM micrograph. XRF result revealed the dominance of titanium and iron in ilmenite while XRD confirmed that ilmenite exist mainly as FeTiO2. The results of the leaching studies showed that ilmenite dissolution in the binary solution increases with increasing acid concentration, oxidant concentration, reaction temperature, stirring speed and liquid-to-solid ratio; while it decreases with particle size. The study showed that 94.77% iron was dissolved by 1MHCl-0.6M NaNO3 at 75μm particle size, 75˚C reaction temperature, 300rpm stirring speed and 30L/g liquid-to-solid ratio. The kinetics of the leaching process was best described by Kröger and Ziegler model with diffusion through the product layer as rate controlling step. The activation energy, Ea, was calculated to be 6.42kJ/mol. The results indicate that HCl-NaNO3 binary solution can be used as an effective lixiviant for extracting iron from ilmenite ores.
A. Ekmekyapar, N. Demirkiran, A. Kunkul, and E. Aktas, “Leaching of Malachite ore in ammonium sulfate solutions and production of copper oxide,” Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol 32, no. 1, pp. 155-165, 2015.
S. Wang, “Copper leaching from chalcopyrite concentrates” Copper and Nickel Production. JOM, 2005.
A. A. Baba, K. I. Ayinla, F. A. Adekola, M. K. Ghosh, O. S. Ayanda, R. B. Bale, A. R. Sheik, and S. R. Pradhan, “A Review on Novel Techniques for Chalcopyrite Ore Processing,” International Journal of Mining Engineering and Mineral Processing, vol 1, no. 1, pp. 1-16, 2012.
Ž. Kaŵberović, M. Korać, D. Ivšić, V. Nikolić, and M. RaŶitović, Hydrometallurgical process for extraction of metals from electronic waste, Serbia: Uotechnology, pp. 1-22, 2018.
E. Olanipekun, “A kinetic study of the leaching of a Nigerian ilmenite ore by hydrochloric acid,” Hydrometallurgy, vol 53, pp. 1–10, 1999.
S. M. Seyed Ghasemi, and A. Azizi, “Investigation of leaching kinetics of zinc from a low-grade ore in organic and inorganic acids,” Journal of Mining & Environment, vol 8 no. 4, pp. 579-591, 2017.
F. K. Crundwell, “The dissolution and leaching of minerals: Mechanisms, myths and misunderstandings,” Hydrometallurgy, vol 139, pp. 132-148, 2013.
G. K. Das, Y. Pranolo, Z. Zhu, and C. Y. Cheng, “Leaching of ilmenite ores by acidic chloride solutions,” Hydrometallurgy, vol 133, pp. 94–99, 2013.
W. Duyvesteyn, B. Sabachy, V. Edmund, D. Verhulst, P. G. West-Sells, T. M. Spitler, A. Vince, J. R. Burkholder, B. J. Paulus, and M. Huls, “Processing titaniferous ore to titanium dioxide pigment,” US Patent 2002/6375923 B1, 2002.
W. Duyvesteyn, B. Sabachy, D. Verhulst, V. Edmund, and P. G. West-Sells, “Processing titaniferous ore to titanium dioxide pigment,” WO Patent 2001/00531 A1, 2001.
D. Verhulst, B. J. Sabacky, J. Lang, and D. K. Ellsworth, Iron control in the Altair hydrochloride pigment process. In: Dutrizac, J.E., Riveros, P.A. (Eds.), Iron Control Technologies: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Iron Control in Hydrometallurgy. Canadian Institute of Mining, Metallurgy and Petroleum, Montreal, pp. 745–755, 2006.
D. Verhulst, B. Sabacky, T. Spitler, and W. Duyvesteyn, “The Altair TiO2 pigment process and its extension into the field of nanomaterials,” vol 95, pp. 89–94, 2002.
V. I. Lakshmanan, R. Sridhar, and D. H. Hains, “A novel hydrometallurgical process for very high purity TiO2 production,” Proceedings of 17th Industrial Minerals International Congress. Cambrian Printer, Aberystwyth, UK, pp. 92–95, 2004a.
V. I. Lakshmanan, R. Sridhar, M. M. Rishea, D. E. Joseph, and R. Laat, Methods for separation of titanium from ore. U.S. patent 2004/6699446-B2, 2004b.
M. H. H. Mahmoud, A. A. I. Afifi, and I. A. Ibrahim, “Reductive leaching of ilmenite ore in hydrochloric acid for preparation of synthetic rutile,” Hydrometallurgy, vol 73, pp. 99–109, 2004.
L. Zhang, H. Hu, Z. Liao, C. Qiyuan, and J. Tan, “Hydrochloric acid leaching behavior of different treated Panxi ilmenite concentrations,” Hydrometallurgy, vol 107, pp. 40–47, 2011.
A. Adekola, A. I. Olosho, A. A. Baba, and S. A. Adebayo, “Dissolution kinetics studies of Nigerian gypsum ore in hydrochloric acid,” Journal of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, vol 53, no. 5, pp. 845-855, 2018.
Q. Feng, S. Wen, Y. Wang, Q. Cao, and W. Zhao, “Dissolution kinetics of cerussite in an alternative leaching reagent for lead,” Chemical Papers, vol 69, no.3, pp. 440–447, 2015.
O. Levenspiel, Chemical reaction engineering, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2015.
A. Abdallah, E. Kacem, Y. Darmane, E. Khalid, and K. Said, “Kinetic study of the manganese mine tailings leaching by organic reductant in sulfuric acid solution,” Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, vol 51A, no. 1, pp. 29 – 39, 2015.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.