Corrosivity Study of Sensitized Welded and Unwelded Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304 in Oxidizing and Non-Oxidizing Environment


  •   Silas Ezedinma Agbokwor

  •   Daniel Oray Nnamdi Obikwelu

  •   Simeon Ikechukwu Neife

  •   Camillus Sunday Obayi


An experimental investigation was carried out to determine the corrosive impact of oxidizing and non-oxidizing environments on sensitized welded and unwelded samples of AISI 304. The selected samples were cut into several sizes. To induce sensitization, the samples were heated and soaked at 750oC at different soaking time intervals such as 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 180minutes, 300 minutes and 600 minutes  followed by water quenching [1]. The resultant sensitized weldment and unwelded samples were subjected to immersion duration test each in oxidizing (H2SO4) and non-oxidizing (HCL) media for 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, & 50 minutes respectively. From the results obtained, it was concluded that corrosion rate decreases as soaking time/immersion duration increases, at constant soaking temperature in non-oxidizing medium of hydrochloric acid (HCL). However, the corrosion rate decrease of the unwelded samples of AISI 304 in non-oxidizing medium is greater than that of their welded counterpart as immersion duration/soaking time increases. Similarly, the unwelded and welded samples of AISI 304, in oxidizing medium of H2SO4 have one common characteristic with their corrosion rate decreasing as soaking time/immersion duration increases; but, surprisingly, the welded samples are having lower corrosion rate than that of the unwelded counterpart as the immersion duration/soaking time increases between 5-15minutes; but reverses to a higher corrosion rate than their unwelded counterpart as immersion duration increases between 15-50 minutes. The results showed that each sample reacted differently in oxidizing and non-oxidizing media; hence oxidizing and non-oxidizing media impacted the materials’ properties differently. The sensitization differences of the welded and the unwelded counterpart obtained during soaking time, significantly affected their reactions in oxidizing and non-oxidizing media which led to differences in the corrosive impacts, under the same environment.

Keywords: Corrosion Rate, Immersion Duration, Oxidizing (HCL) and Non-Oxidizing (H2SO4) Media, Sensitization, Soaking Time/Temperature, Welded/Unwelded AISI 304


Silas Ezedinma Agbokwor, Simeon Ikechukwu Neife: Investigation of the Effects of Soaking Time on the Properties of Stainless Steel: American Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering.Vol.3, No.3, 2019, pp.47-52. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmme.20190303.11

Pierre R. Roberge: Corrosion Basics: An Introduction, Second Ed. (Houston, TX: NACE International, 2006), pp. 21-22.

National Corrosion Service (NCS) Publication UK. Guides to good practice in corrosion control. (, 2000.

Rondelli, G.; Vicentini, B. Susceptibility of highly alloyed austenitic stainless steels to caustic stress corrosion cracking. Mater. Corros. 2002, 53, 813–819.

Rondelli, G.; Vicentini, B.; Sivieri, E. Stress corrosion cracking of stainless steels in high temperature caustic solutions. Corrosion Science 1997, 39, 1037–1049.

Parnian, N. Failure analysis of austenitic stainless steel tubes in a gas fired steam heater. Mater. Des. 2012, 36, 788–795.

Betova, I.; Bojinov, M.; Hyökyvirta, O.; Saario, T. Effect of sulphide on the corrosion behaviour of AISI 316L stainless steel and its constituent elements in simulated kraft digester conditions. Corrosion Science. 2010, 52, 1499–1507.

Chasse, K.; Raji, S.; Singh, P. Effect of chloride ions on corrosion and stress corrosion cracking of duplex stainless steels in hot alkaline-sulfide solutions. Corrosion 2012, 68, 932–949.

Kumar, S.; Shahi, A.S. On the influence of welding stainless steel on microstructural development and mechanical performance. Mater. Manuf. Process. 2014, 29, 894–902.

Frankel, G., et al. Localized corrosion: general discussion; Faraday Discussions. 2015 180(0): P.381-414.

Zheng S, Shibata T, Haruna T: Corrosion Science Journal, 2005, 47, 1049-1061.

Aydogbu GH, Aydinnol MK: Corrosion Science Journal, 2006, 48, 3565-3583.

Seifedine, K (2008): European Journal of Scientific Research, ISSN 1450-216X Vol. 22 No.4, 2008, 508-516.

Pitting Corrosion,” NACE International, (September 28, 2015).

F. Haraszti, T. Kovács: Plastic deformation effect of the corrosion resistance in case of austenitic stainless steel, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 175: Paper 012048.4 (2017).

G.H. Koch, et al., “Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States,” Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-RD-01-156, March 2002.

Sindou Kou (2003). Welding Metallurgy. 2nd Ed. A John Wiley and Sons, INC. Publication. New Jersey.

F. Haraszti: The bases of corrosion investigation EME press, Műszaki Tudományos Füzetek 21, Cluj Napoca (2016) pp. 185-188.

F. Haraszti: Corrosion investigation of steel samples EME press, Műszaki Tudományos Füzetek 21, Cluj Napoca (2016) pp.189-192.

M. Dománkova, et al: The microstructure evolution and its effect on corrosion properties of 18Cr-12Ni-2,5Mo Steel, annealed at 500-900°C, Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 11(3(2014) pp.125-137

Newman, R. C. 2001 W. R. Whitney award lecture: understanding the corrosion of stainless steel; Corrosion 2001. 57(12): P. 1030-1041

NACE international conference & EXPO; CORROSION 2016: PAPER NO.7083. The role of local chemistry changes in the repassivation of localized corrosion.

NACE international conference & EXPO; CORROSION 2016: PAPER NO.7083: The role of local chemistry changes in the repassivation of localized corrosion.

Li SL, Zhang HL, Wang YL, Li SX, Zheng K, Xue F, Wang XT. Annealing induced recovery of long-term thermal aging embritlement in a duplex stainless steel. Material Science Engineering A 2013; 564:85–91.

Mateo A, Palomino JL, Salan N, Llanes L, Anglada M. Mechanical evaluation of a reversion heat treatment for a duplex stainless steel thermally embrittled. In: ECF 11 – mechanisms and mechanics of damage and failure, vol. 1, 1996.

T. Kovács, L. Kuzsella: High Energy Rate Forming Induced Phase Transition in austenitic steel; Journal of Physics Conference-Series 790: Paper 012039. 5 (2017).


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Agbokwor, S., Obikwelu, D., Neife, S. and Obayi, C. 2019. Corrosivity Study of Sensitized Welded and Unwelded Austenitic Stainless Steel AISI 304 in Oxidizing and Non-Oxidizing Environment. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. 4, 10 (Oct. 2019), 179-184. DOI: