Data processing related to the Earth’s changes, gathered from different platforms and sensors implemented worldwide and monitoring the environment and structure represents Earth observation (EO). Environmental monitoring includes changes in Earth’s vegetation, atmospheric gas content, ocean state, melting level in the ice fields, etc. This process is mainly performed by satellites. The Earth observation satellites use Low Earth Orbits (LEO) for their missions. These missions are accomplished mainly based on photo imagery. Thus, the relative Sun’s position related to the observed area, it is very important for the photo imagery, in order the observed area from the satellite to be treated under the same lighting (illumination) conditions. This could be achieved by keeping a constant Sun position related to the orbital plane due to the Earth’s motion around the Sun. This is called Sun synchronization for low Earth orbits, the feature which is applied for satellites dedicated for the Earth observation. Nodal regression is the phenomenon which is utilized for low circular orbits providing to them the Sun synchronization. Nodal regression refers to the shift of the orbit’s line of nodes over time as Earth revolves around the Sun, caused due to the Earth’s oblateness. Nodal regression depends on orbital altitude and orbital inclination angle. For the in advance defined range of altitudes stems the inclination window for the satellite low Earth orbits to be Sun synchronized. For analytical and simulation purposes, the altitudes from 600km to 1200km are considered. Further for the determined inclination window of the Sun synchronization it is simulated the orbital perigee deviation for the above considered altitudes and the eventual impact on the satellite’s mission.
G. Maral and M. Bousquet, “Satellite communication systems”, John Willey & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, England, 2002.
M. Richharia, “Satellite communication systems”, McGraw Hill, New York, 1999.
Sh. Cakaj, K. Malaric, “Rigorous analysis on performance of LEO satellite ground station in urban environment”, International Journal of Satellite Communications and Networking, 25 (6), 2007, 619 - 643.
POSTNOTE 566 November 2017 Environmental Earth Observation, The parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, Westminster, London, SW1A 0AA.
B. R. Tell, P.J.Meadows, M.Tranfaglia, M.Santuari, A. Monit-Guarnieri, D. D’Aria, I.N.Traver, “ASAR instrument performance and product quality evolution”, IEEE International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, Barcelona 2007.
C. Brekke and A. Solberg, “Oil Spill Detection by Satellite Remote Sensing”, Remote Sensing of Environment, DOI:10.1016/jrse2004.11.015, 2005.
A. Kelly and E. Macie, “The A-Train: NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) satellites and other Earth Observing Satellites”, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland.
S. Cakaj, B. Kamo, K. Malaric, “The Inclination Window for Low Earth Sun Synchronized Satellite Orbits”, Transactions on Maritime Science, Volume 2, Number 1, April 2013, Split, Croatia, pp. 15-19.
N. Ahmad, D. Herdiwijaya, T. Djamaluddin, H.Usui, Y. Miyake, “Diagnosis low Earth orbit satellite anomalies using NOAA-15 elektron data associated with geomagnetic perturbations”, Earth Planets and Space, Nr.70, 2018.
Q. Kong, F. Gao, J. Guo, L.Han, L. Zhang, Y. Shen, “Analysis of Precise Orbit Predictions for a HY-2A Satellite with Three Atmospheric Density Models Based on Dynamic Method”, Remote Sensing, 11(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11010040, 2019.
S. Cakaj, M. Fischer, A. L. Schotlz, “Sun synchronization of Low Earth Orbits (LEO) through inclination angle”, 28th IASTED International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control, MIC 2009, Feb. 16 –18, 2009, Innsbruck, Austria, pp. 155-161.
A. Maini and V. Agrawal, Satellite Technology, John Wiley & sons, second edition, 2011, ISBN:978-0-470-66034-9.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.