Within the scope of this article, LIGHT has been considered as any arbitrary Electromagnetic Radiation within a very wide frequency range, because during the transformation from Visible Light into the Gravitational Electromagnetic Confinement, the frequency changes in a very wide range. This frequency transformation is possible because of the combined Lorentz / Doppler-Effect transformation during the collapse (contraction) of the radiation when the Gravitational Electromagnetic Confinement has been formed (Implosion of Visible Light). Within the scope of this article MATTER is considered to be any kind of 3-dimensional confined (Electromagnetic) energy. The inner structure of a photon is based on a 3-dimensional anisotropic equilibrium within the electromagnetic pulses in which an equilibrium does exist for the Electric and the Magnetic Fields separately generated by the pulses. A photon cannot be considered as a particle. Because particles are 3-dimensional confinements. Photons are anisotropic (in 1st and 2nd dimension a particle and in the 3rd dimension a wave) confinements of electromagnetic pulses, generated during the energy transitions within the atoms. Photons are 2-dimensional confinements of electromagnetic energy and demonstrate the property of inertia (electromagnetic mass) in the 2 directions of confinement. In the 3rd direction, the direction of propagation, photons can only be considered as an electromagnetic wave and for that reason do not demonstrate the property of inertia. Electromagnetic waves cannot be accelerated or decelerated because the speed of light is a universal constant. For that reason, photons interact with a gravitational field in an anisotropic way. Due to a gravitational field, photons can be accelerated or decelerated in the directions perpendicular to the direction of propagation and follow a curved path. But a gravitational field in the direction of propagation will have no impact on the speed of the photons, which will remain the unchanged universal constant, the speed of light. Photonics is the physical science of light based on the concept of “photons” introduced by Albert Einstein in the early 20th century. Einstein introduced this concept in the “particle-wave duality” discussion with Niels Bohr to demonstrate that even light has particle properties (mass and momentum) and wave properties (frequency). That concept became a metaphor and from that time on a beam of light has been generally considered as a beam of particles (photons). Which is a wrong understanding. Light particles do not exist. Photons are nothing else but electromagnetic complex wave configurations and light particles are not like “particles” but separated electromagnetic wave packages, 2-dimensionally confined in the directions perpendicular to the direction of propagation and in a perfect equilibrium with the radiation pressure and the inertia of electromagnetic energy in the forward direction, controlling the speed of light. This new theory will explain how electromagnetic wave packages demonstrate inertia, mass and momentum and which forces keep the wave packages together in a way that they can be measured like particles with their own specific mass and momentum. All we know about light, and in generally about any electromagnetic field configuration, has been based only on two fundamental theories. James Clerk Maxwell introduced in 1865 the “Theory of Electrodynamics” with the publication: “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” and Albert Einstein introduced in 1905 the “Theory of Special Relativity” with the publication: “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” and in 1913 the “Theory of General Relativity” with the publication ”Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation”. However, both theories are not capable to explain the property of electromagnetic mass and in specific the anisotropy of the phenomenon of electromagnetic mass presented e.g. in a LASER beam. To understand what electromagnetic inertia and the corresponding electromagnetic mass is and how the anisotropy of electromagnetic mass can be explained and how it has to be defined, a New Theory about Light has to be developed. A part of this “New Theory about Light”, based on Newton’s well- known Equation in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton’s 4-dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell equations and Newton’s law in the 4th dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non-relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation.
Li-Xin Li; A New Unified Theory of Electromagnetic and Gravitational Interactions, Frontiers of Physics, Volume 11, Issue 6, article id. 110402 (2016); arxiv.org/abs/1511.01260
Richard Easther, Brian R Greene, Mark G Jackson and Daniel Kabat; String windings in the early universe, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Volume 2005, February 2005
J. Wheeler, Phys. Rev. 97, 511 (1955).
Dirk Englund, Arka Majumdar, Michal Bajcsy, Andrei Faraon, Pierre Petroff, and Jelena Vučković; Ultrafast Photon-Photon Interaction in a Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot-Cavity System, Phys. Rev Lett. 108, 093604, March 2012, DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.093604
L. Filipe O. Costa, Georgios Lukes-Gerakopoulos, and Oldřich Semerák; Spinning particles in general relativity: Momentum-velocity relation for the Mathisson-Pirani spin condition; Phys. Rev. D 97, 084023 – Published 16 April 2018
Ryotaro Kase, Masato Minamitsuji, and Shinji Tsujikawa; Relativistic stars in vector-tensor theories; Phys. Rev. D 97, 084009 – Published 9 April 2018
Hector O. Silva, Jeremy Sakstein, Leonardo Gualtieri, Thomas P. Sotiriou, and Emanuele Berti; Spontaneous Scalarization of Black Holes and Compact Stars from a Gauss-Bonnet Coupling;Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 131104 (2018) - Published 30 March 2018
Jahed Abedi, Hannah Dykaar, and Niayesh Afshordi; Echoes from the abyss: Tentative evidence for Planck-scale structure at black hole horizons ;Phys. Rev. D 96, 082004 (2017) - Published 26 October 2017
A. Hees, T. Do, A. M. Ghez, G. D. Martinez, S. Naoz, E. E. Becklin, A. Boehle, S. Chappell, D. Chu, A. Dehghanfar, K. Kosmo, J. R. Lu, K. Matthews, M. R. Morris, S. Sakai, R. Schödel, and G. Witzel; Testing General Relativity with Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole in Our Galactic Center; Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 211101 (2017) - Published 25 May 2017
J. W. Vegt, A Continuous Model of Matter based on AEONs, Physics Essays ,1995, Volume 8, Number 2, 201-224 A Continuous model of Matter ( https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/ra7ng )
J. W. Vegt, Unified 4-Dimensional Hyperspace Equilibrium beyond Einstein 4-Dimensional, Kaluza-Klein 5-Dimensional and Superstring 10- and 11 Dimensional Curved Hyperspaces ( https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/vq2a4 )
J. M. Maldacena, Black Holes in String Theory, Princeton University, arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/960723533.
V. C. de Andrade and J. G. Pereira, Gravitational Lorentz force and the description of the gravitational interaction, Phys. Rev. D 56, 468
Volodymyr Krasnoholovets, Motion of a Relativistic Particle and the Vacuum, Physics Essays, vol 10, no 3, 1997, 407-416, arXiv:quant-ph/9903077
Donald H Kobe ; Quantum power in de Broglie–Bohm theory ; Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, Volume 40 - Number 19 , Published 24 April 2007
.J. W. Vegt. Origin of “De Broglie Waves” (Calculations in Mathematica 11.0 in PDF format) Publisher Wolfram. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/gbn4p
J.W. Vegt. Calculations in Mathematica. Solutions for an electromagnetic field under the influence of a longitudinal gravitational field.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.