Non-Destructive Characterization of Subsurface Plastic Deformation in Case Carburized Steel Using Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Technique

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Mohamed M. Blaow

  •   Mohamed Ali Ballem

  •   Brian Andrew Shaw

Abstract

The effect of extreme loading in bending was investigated by magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) in two types of inhomogeneous steels that widely used in gear industry. EN 36 and H8620 steels in the carburized, tempered and ground condition were investigated after unloading from high stress levels. The inhomogeneity arising from the variation in carbon content showed up clearly by double peaks MBN profiles before loading. The first MBN peak at low field revealed the soft subsurface region and the second peak at higher field revealed the hard surface layer. Residual stresses profiles were produced by XRD before and after loading to probe plasticity in the cross sections of both specimens. Barkhausen noise measurements showed a considerable change in the first peak height in both steels as a response to plastic deformation in tension and compression in the subsurface material. The height of the second peak remained unchanged in EN 36 specimen but increased slightly in the H8620 specimen.  The residual stress measurements after unloading indicated that the subsurface materials after a depth of 0.4 mm in both specimens were yielded. The surface layer of the H8620 steel was also affected slightly by bending as revealed by an increase in the second MBN peak height and confirmed by XRD as indication of yielding. The experiment confirmed that the magnetic Barkhausen noise can be used to characterize yielding in inhomogeneous steels non-destructively.


Keywords: Case-Carburised Steels, Magnetic Barkhausen Noise, Residual Stress, X-Ray Diffraction

References

M. M. Blaow and B. A. Shaw, "Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Profile Analysis: Effect of Excitation Field Strength and Detection Coil Sensitivity in Case Carburized Steel," Materials Sciences and Applications, vol. 5, p. 9, 2014.

D. Easton, C. Aylott, B. Shaw, and S. Rahimi, "Residual stress in case hardened steel gears," in American Gear Manufacturer Association Fall Technical Meeting 2018, 2018.

K. Kesavan, K. Ravisankar, S. Parivallal, and P. Sreeshylam, "Nondestructive evaluation of residual stresses in welded plates using the Barkhausen noise technique," Experimental Techniques, vol. 29, pp. 17-21, 2005.

P. J. Withers and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia, "Residual stress. Part 1 – Measurement techniques," Materials Science and Technology, vol. 17, pp. 355-365, 2001.

W. N. Sharpe, Springer Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics: Springer, 2008.

F. Yu and P. B. Nagy, "Simple analytical approximations for eddy current profiling of the near-surface residual stress in shot-peened metals," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 96, pp. 1257-1266, 2004.

P. S. Prevey, "X-ray diffraction residual stress techniques," ASM International, ASM Handbook., vol. 10, pp. 380-392, 1986.

A. Wojtas, "Surface and subsurface residual stresses after shot peening- their qualitative and quantitative analysis by x-ray diffraction and Barkhausen noise analysis," Metal Finishing News, vol. 5, pp. 24-26, 2004.

C. H. Gür and S. Savas, "Measuring the surface residual stresses in shot peened steel components by magnetic barkhausen noise method," in Proceedings of the 18th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing, Durban, South Africa, 2012, pp. 16-20.

H. Kwun and G. Burkhardt, "Electromagnetic techniques for residual stress measurements," ASM Handbook., vol. 17, pp. 159-163, 1989.

T. Liu, et al., "Comprehensive analysis of Barkhausen noise properties in the cold rolled mild steel," Journal of magnetism and magnetic materials, vol. 310, pp. e989-e991, 2007/03/01/ 2007.

S. F. SILVA JR, P. C. Leonardo, M. Miguel, D. A. ALENCAR, and G. G. BOTELHO, "Stress Measurements in a Structural Component Using Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Analysis," [Online]. vol. 2, pp. 05-15. Available: http://www. ndt. net/article/ndtnet/2010/silva. pdf.

C. C. H. Lo, E. R. Kinser, and D. C. Jiles, "Analysis of Barkhausen effect signals in surface-modified magnetic materials using a hysteretic-stochastic model," Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 99, p. 08B705, 2006.

M. Blaow, J. Evans, and B. Shaw, "Surface decarburisation of steel detected by magnetic Barkhausen emission," Journal of materials science, vol. 40, pp. 5517-5520, 2005.

S. Vaidyanathan, V. Moorthy, T. Jayakumar, and B. Raj, "Evaluation of induction hardened case depth through microstructural characterisation using magnetic Barkhausen emission technique," Materials Science and Technology, vol. 16, pp. 202-208, 2000/02/01 2000.

G. Bach, K. Goebbels, and W. A. Theiner, "Characterization of hardening depth by Barkhausen noise measurement," Materials Evaluation, vol. 46, pp. 1576-1580, 1988.

M. Dubois and M. Fiset, "Evaluation of case depth on steels by Barkhausen noise measurement," Materials Science and Technology, vol. 11, pp. 264-267, 1995/03/01 1995.

S. Vaidyanathan, V. Moorthy, T. Jayakumar, and R. Baldev, "Evaluation of carburization depth in service exposed ferritic steel using magnetic Barkhausen noise analysis," in Trends in NDE science and technology: proceedings of the fourteenth world conference on NDT. V. 3, 1996.

A. Drehmer, G. J. L. Gerhardt, and F. P. Missell, "Case depth in SAE 1020 steel using barkhausen noise," Materials Research, vol. 16, pp. 1015-1019, 2013.

X. J. Hao, et al., "Off-line measurement of decarburization of steels using a multifrequency electromagnetic sensor," Scripta Materialia, vol. 58, pp. 1033-1036, 2008/06/01/ 2008.

M. M. Blaow and B. A. Shaw, "Effect of excitation field strength on magnetic Barkhausen noise profile in case carburized EN 36 steel," AIP Conference Proceedings, vol. 1653, p. 020021, 2015.

D. C. Jiles and L. Suominen, "Effects of surface stress on Barkhausen effect emissions: model predictions and comparison with X-ray diffraction studies," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 30, pp. 4924-4926, 1994.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
[1]
Blaow, M., Ballem, M. and Shaw, B. 2019. Non-Destructive Characterization of Subsurface Plastic Deformation in Case Carburized Steel Using Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Technique. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 4, 12 (Dec. 2019), 126-131. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2019.4.12.1691.