Mineralogical and Geotechnical Properties of Clay Minerals in Northern Borno, Nigeria


  •   Fatimoh Dupe Adams

  •   Shettima Bukar

  •   Mohammed Bukar

  •   B. A. Umdagas


Clay generally refers to either fine grained earth material with particle size of less than two micron (< 2 m) or group of hydrous aluminum silicate minerals that are characterized by sheet silicate structure of composite layers stacked along the C-axis. They are common deposits found in most geological setting like in fine grained sedimentary rocks such as shale, mudstone, and siltstone, in fine grained metamorphic slate and phyllite. The interest in clay deposits arises from its numerous uses of the mineral group and the behaviour of soils constituents when used as engineering soil and its resultant effects on engineering structures like roads, dams, bridges and houses. Evaluation of the soil properties of the Chad Formation indicated that the plasticity characteristics of the samples are of low to medium plasticity as indicated by matching the result with the DIN. chart. The results of free swell showed that the samples are susceptible to swelling when they absorbed water. The particle size distribution tests indicate that the percentage of fine (i.e. samples passing the 75µm sieve) is about 1.7 % implying that the grain sizes are within the texture of medium grain fraction

Keywords: Geotechnical Properties, Clay Minerals, Northern Borno, Nigeria


Federal ministry of land and survey. Topographic map of Borno State, Nigeria. 1997, p78

Carter, J.D., Barber, W and Tait, E.A. The geology of parts of Adamawa, Bauchi and Bornu provinces in Northeastern Nigeria. Bulletin geological survey of Nigeria, vol. 30, pp 1-99, 1963

Shettima, B., Kyari, A.M., Sulaiman, A. and Bukar, F. Sedimentology and paleo environmental studies on the Chad Formation of Bornu Basin, North–eastern Nigeria. Global Journal of Geological Sciences. Vol.4, No. 68, 2011.

Holtz, R.D. and Kovacs, W.D. An introduction to geotechnical engineering practice. Hall Inc, USA, 1981, pp 1-25.

Burke, K.C. The Chad Basin: An active intra-continental Basin. Techtonophysics, 36, pp 197-206, 1976.

Genik, G.J. Regional framework, structural and rift aspect of petroleum Basins in Niger, Chad and the Central African Republic (CAR). Techtonophysics, vol., 123, pp169-185, 1993.

Zaborski, P., Ugodulunwa,F., Idornigie, A., Nnabo, P. and Ibe, K. Stratigraphy and structure of the cretaceous Gongola Basin, Northeastern Nigeria. Bulletin, Centre for Research Production Elf Aquitaine, vol., 22, pp153-185, 1997.

Avbovbo, A. A, AyoOla, E.O and Osahun, S.ADepositional and structural style in Chad Basin of Northeastern Nigeria. Bulletin American Association of Petroleum Geologists, vol.70, no.121 pp.1767-1798, 1986.

Shettima, B.,.Adams, F.D and Joseph, M.V. Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Mudstones of the Bama Ridge (upper Chad Formation). Bornu Basin, North-Eastern Nigeria. International Research Journal of Advance Engineering and Science. vol.2, issue 1, pp 153-159, 2017.

Popoff, M., Wiedmann, J. and De Klazz, I. The upper Cretaceous Gongila and Pindiga Formations, Northeastern Nigeria. Subdivisions, age stratigraphic correlations and paleogeographic implications. Ecologea Geologie Helv. 79: pp343-363, 1986.

Abdulkarim H. A., Mamman, Y.D., Abubakar, M.B., Babangida, S.Y.D., John, S.J. and Shettima, B. Paleodepositional environment and age of Kanawa Member of Pindiga Formation, Gongola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria: Sedimentological and palynological approach. Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol.134, 345-351. 2017.

Shettima, B. Adams, F.D., Haruna, A.I., Goro, A.I. and Bukar, M. Geochemical facies of the Turonian Gongila Formation, Bornu (Chad) Basin, Nigeria: Implication for provenance, paleoclimate and paleo weathering conditions. International journal of Research- Granthaalayah, vol.6, Issue 4, pp144-156, 2018.

Dike, E.F.C. The stratigraphy and structure of the Kerri-Kerri Basin, North eastern Nigeria. Journal of mining and geology, vol.29 No.2 pp77-93, 1993.

Shettima, B., Kyari, A. M., Aji, M. M., Adams, F. D. Storm and tide influenced de positional architecture of the Pliocene-Pleistocene Chad Formation, Chad Basin (Bornu Sub-basin) NE Nigeria: A mixed fluvial, deltaic, shoreface and lacustrine complex. Journal of African Earth Sciences, vol. 143, pp.309-320, 2018.

Brindley, G. W. X-ray identification and Crystal structure of clay minerals (1st ed.): Mineralogical society, London. 1951, pp34.

Smith, M.J. Soil mechanics. 2nded. Publisher, the English language book society. 1970, 121p.

Sutton, B.H.C. Solution of problems in soil mechanics: A problem base text book. Cambridge Press, 1979, 221p.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Adams, F., Bukar, S., Bukar, M. and Umdagas, B. 2020. Mineralogical and Geotechnical Properties of Clay Minerals in Northern Borno, Nigeria. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 5, 9 (Sep. 2020), 1062-1068. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.1767.