A Review of the High-speed Permanent Magnet Rotor Stress Analysis used for Automotive Air-handling Machines

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Levi Ryan Mallin

  •   Simon Mark Barrans

Abstract

Machines incorporating high-speed electrical machines (HSEM) are becoming increasingly common place in applications including air handling, energy storage and medical devices. They are of increasing interest within the automotive field for air handling applications. HSEM’s use surface-mounted permanent magnet (PM) rotors, manufactured from rare earth metals. However, these PM’s have low tensile strength and are susceptible to failure under the centrifugal load produced at high speed rotation. Retaining sleeves which are an interference fit around the magnets, provide compression and hence resistance to tensile stress. The ability to predict the stresses within the rotor assembly is essential for robust design. This review paper examines existing analytical calculations and finite element analysis (FEA) models. The analytical approaches include both plane stress and plane strain models and the limitations of these are discussed. For relatively long rotors, a generalised plane strain approach is suitable, however it is seldom used. In addition, this latter approach has not been extended to assemblies where the magnets are assembled onto a carrier or shaft. Optimisation of rotors has been addressed in a relatively small number of papers. However, further work is required in this area to ensure that the optimised rotors can be manufactured.


Keywords: High-speed electric machines, surface-mounted permanent magnet rotor, generalised plane strain, plane stress, compound cylinder

References

A. Tenconi, S. Vaschetto, and A. Vigliani, "Electrical Machines for High-Speed Applications: Design Considerations and Tradeoffs," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 3022-3029, 2014.

M. A. Rahman, A. Chiba, and T. Fukao, "Super High Speed Electrical Machines - Summary," in IEEE Power Engineering Society General Meeting, Denver, CO, USA 2004, vol. 2: IEEE, pp. 1272-1275.

H. Fang, R. Qu, J. Li, P. Zhang, and X. Fan, "Rotor Design for High-Speed High-Power Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 3411-3419, July 15 2017.

S. Li and B. Sarlioglu, "Assessment of High-Speed Multi-Megawatt Electric Machines," in Electric Machines and Drives Conference, Coeur d'Alene, ID, USA 2015: IEEE.

Z. Kolondzovski, A. Arkkio, J. Larjola, and P. Sallinen, "Power Limits of High-Speed Permanent-Magnet Electrical Machines for Compressor Applications," IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 73-82, February 18 2011.

C. Gerada, A. Boglietti, and A. Cavagnino, "High-Speed Electrical Machines and Drives," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2943-2945, June 2014.

D. Gerada, A. Mebarki, N. Brown, C. Gerada, A. Cavagnino, and A. Boglietti, "High-speed electrical machines: Technologies, trends and developments.," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 2946-2959, 2014.

S. Barrans, M. Al-Ani, and J. Carter, "Mechanical design of rotors for permanent magnet high-speed electric motors for turbocharger applications," IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, 17th May 2017.

G. Burnand, D. M. Araujo, and Y. Perriard, "Very-High-Speed Permanent Magnet Motors: Mechanical Rotor Stresses Analytical Model," in Electric Machines and Drives Conference, Miami, FL, USA 2017: IEEE.

C. Zwyssig, J. W. Kolar, and S. D. Round, "Megaspeed Drive Systems: Pushing Beyond 1 Million r/min," IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 564-574, September 2 2009.

P. Tsao, M. Senesky, and S. R. Sanders, "An Integrated Flywheel Energy Storage System With Homopolar Inductor Motor/Generator and High-Frequency Drive," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1710-1725, 2003.

I. Arsie, A. Cricchio, and C. Pianese, "A Comprehensive Powertrain Model to Evaluate the Benefits of Electric Turbo Compound (ETC) in Reducing CO2 Emissions from Small Diesel Passenger Cars," SAE Technical Paper Series, 2014.

N. Terdich and R. Martinez-Botas, "Experimental Efficiency Characterization of an Electrically Assisted Turbocharger," SAE technical paper series, 2013.

W. S. Lee, E; Li, Y; Li, S; Bobba, D; Sarlioglu, B, "Overview of Electric Turbocharger and Supercharger for Downsized Internal Combustion Engines," IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification vol. 3, no. 1, p. 12, 21 October 2016.

A. Borisavljevic, H. Polinder, and J. A. Ferreira, "Enclosure design for a high-speed permanent magnet rotor," in Power Electronics, Machines and Drives, Brighton, UK,, 2010: IET.

A. Binder, T. Schneider, and M. Klohr, "Fixation of Buried and Surface-Mounted Magnets in High-Speed Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machines," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1031-1037, October 15 2006.

J. F. Gieras, "Design of Permanent Magnet Brushless Motors for High Speed Applications," in International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, Hangzhou, China 2014: IEEE.

D. J. B. Smith, B. C. Mecrow, G. J. Atkinson, A. G. Jack, and A. A. A. Mehna, "Shear Stress Concentrations in Permanent Magnet Rotor Sleeves," in International Conference on Electrical Machines, Rome, Italy, 2010: IEEE.

R. Keller, E. Mese, and J. Maguire, "Integrated System for Electrical Generation and Boosting (iSGB) " in International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Hangzhou, China, 2014: IEEE.

E. J. Hearn, Mechanics of Materials 2 (Mechanics of Materials). Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997.

F. Zhang, G. Du, T. Wang, G. Liu, and W. Cao, "Rotor Retaining Sleeve Design for a 1.12-MW High-Speed PM Machine," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 3675-3685, Sept-Oct 2015.

D. Xu, X. Wang, and G. Li, "Optimization Design of the Sleeve for High Speed Permanent Magnet Machine," in Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), Hefei, China 2016: IEEE, pp. 2531-2535.

L. Chen and C. Zhu, "Rotor Strength Analysis for High Speed Permanent Magnet Machines," in International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Hangzhou, China, 2014: IEEE.

C. Zhu and L. Chen, "Rotor Strength Analysis for Stator-Permanent Magnet Machines," in International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Sydney, NSW, Australia 2017: IEEE, pp. 1-6.

L. Chen and C. Zhu, "Strength Analysis for Surface-mounted Permanent Magnet Rotor in High-Speed Motor," TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol. 12, no. 10, pp. 7131-7142, October 2014.

W. Cheng, G. Xu, Y. Sun, H. Geng, and L. Yu, "Optimum Design of Ultra High Speed Hybrid Rotor of PM Machines," in International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Tianjin, China, 2014: IEEE, pp. 1388-1393.

T. Wang, F. Wang, H. Bai, and J. Xung, "Optimization Design of Rotor Structure for High Speed Permanent Magnet Machines," in International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Seoul, South Korea, 2007: IEEE, pp. 1438-1442.

A. Borisavljevic, H. Polinder, and B. Ferreira, "Overcoming limits of high-speed PM machines," in International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), Vilamoura, Portugal 2008: IEEE, pp. 1-6.

P. Pfister and Y. Perriard, "A 200 000 rpm, 2 kW Slotless Permanent Magnet Motor," in International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems, Wuhan, China 2008: IEEE, pp. 3054-3059.

A. Borisavljevic, H. Polinder, and J. A. Ferreira, "On the Speed Limits of Permanent-Magnet Machines," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 220-227, 2010.

P. Pfister and Y. Perriard, "Very-High-Speed Slotless Permanent-Magnet Motors: Analytical Modeling, Optimization, Design, and Torque Measurement Methods," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 296-303, 2010.

A. Gilson, F. Dubas, D. Depernet, and C. Espanet, "Comparison of High-Speed PM Machine Topologies for Electrically-Assisted Turbocharger Applications," in Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Chiba, Japan, 2016: IEEE, pp. 1-5.

N. Uzhegov, E. Kurvinen, J. Nerg, J. Pyrhönen, J. T. Sopanen, and S. Shirinskii, "Multidisciplinary Design Process of a 6-Slot 2-Pole High-Speed Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Machine," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 784-795, January 8 2016.

D. Xu, X. Wang, and G. Li, "Design and Test for High Speed Permanent Magnet Wind Generator and Research on Rotor Protection Measures," in Industrial Electronics and Applications (ICIEA), Hefei, China 2016: IEEE, pp. 2026-2031.

Y. Wan, S. Cui, S. Wu, L. Song, I. M. Milyaev, and S. O. Yuryevich, "Shock-Resistance Rotor Design of A High-Speed PMSM for Integrated Pulsed Power System," IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, vol. 45, no. 7, pp. 1399-1405, July 7 2017.

A. Damiano, A. Floris, G. Fois, M. Porru, and A. Serpi, "Modelling and Design of PM Retention Sleeves for High-Speed PM Synchronous Machines," in Electric Drives Production Conference (EDPC), Nuremberg, Germany 2016: IEEE, pp. 118-125.

D. Gerada, A. Mebarki, R. P. Mokhadkar, and C. Gerada, "Design Issues of High-Speed Permanent Magnet Machines for High-Temperature Applications," in IEEE International Electric Machines and Drives Conference, Miami, FL, USA 2009: IEEE, pp. 1036-1042.

J. M. Yon, P. H. Mellor, R. Wrobel, J. D. Booker, and S. G. Burrow, "Analysis of Semipermeable Containment Sleeve Technology for High-Speed Permanent Magnet Machines," IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 646-653, July 27 2012.

Y. Zhou and J. Fang, "Strength Analysis of Enclosure for a High-Speed Permanent Magnet Rotor," AASRI Procedia, vol. 3, pp. 652-660, 2012.

L. Papini, C. Gerada, D. Gerada, and A. Mebarki, "High Speed Solid Rotor Induction Machine: Analysis and Performances," in International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Hangzhou, China, 2014: IEEE, pp. 2759-2765.

B. Riemer, M. Leßmann, and K. Hameyer, "Rotor Design of a High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine rating 100,000 rpm at 10kW," in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition, Atlanta, GA, USA 2010: IEEE, pp. 3978-3985.

H. Czichos, Grundlagen der Ingenieurwissenschaften (Hutte). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, 1989.

B. D. Varaticeanu, P. Minciunescu, and D. Fodorean, "Mechanical Design and Analysis of a Permanent Magnet Rotors used in High-Speed Synchronous Motor," Electrotehnica, Electronica, Automatica, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 9-17, January 2014.

Z. Tao, Y. Xiaoting, Z. Huiping, and J. Hongyun, "Strength Design on Permanent Magnet Rotor in High Speed Motor Using Finite Element Method," TELKOMNIKA Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 1758-1763, March 2014.

Z. Huang and J. Fang, "Multiphysics Design and Optimization of High-Speed Permanent-Magnet Electrical Machines for Air Blower Applications," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 2766-2774, April 8 2016.

G. Berardi, N. Bianchi, and D. Gasperini, "A High Speed PM Generator for an Organic Rankine Cycle System," in Electric Machines and Drives Conference (IEMDC), Miami, FL, USA 2017: IEEE, pp. 1-8.

J. Ahn, J. Choi, C. H. Park, C. Han, C. Kim, and T. Yoon, "Correlation Between Rotor Vibration and Mechanical Stress in Ultra-High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors," IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, vol. 53, no. 11, October 24 2017.

A. S. Thomas, Z. Q. Zhu, and G. W. Jewll, "Comparison of flux switching and surface mounted permanent magnet generators for high-speed applications," in Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD), 2011: IET, pp. 111-116.

W. U. Fernando and C. Gerada, "High speed permanent magnet machine design with minimized stack-length under electromagnetic and mechanical constraints," International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 95-109, 22 January 2013.

J. Luomi, C. Zwyssig, A. Looser, and J. W. Kolar, "Efficiency Optimization of a 100-W, 500 000-rpm Permanent-Magnet Machine Including Air Friction Losses," in IEEE Industry Applications Conference, New Orleans, LA, USA 2007: IEEE, pp. 861-868.

J. Luomi, C. Zwyssig, A. Looser, and J. W. Kolar, "Efficiency Optimization of a 100-W 500 000-r/min Permanent-Magnet Machine Including Air-Friction Losses," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1368-1377, 2009.

C. Zwyssig and J. W. Kolar, "Design of a 100 W, 500000 rpm Permanent-Magnet Generator for Mesoscale Gas Turbines," in Industry Applications Conference, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China 2005, vol. 1: IEEE, pp. 253-260.

S. Zhu, M. Cheng, and X. Sun, "Mechanical design of outer-rotor structure for dual mechanical port machine," in Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Beijing, China 2011: IEEE.

E. Schubert and B. Sarlioglu, "Mechanical Design Method for a High-Speed Surface Permanent Magnet Rotor," in IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE), Milwaukee, WI, USA 2016, pp. 1-6.

H. Mitterhofer and W. Amrhein, "Design Aspects and Test Results of a High Speed Bearingless Drive," in Power Electronics and Drive Systems (PEDS), Singapore, 2011: IEEE, pp. 705-710.

R. Benlamine, T. Hamiti, F. Vangraefschèpe, and D. Lhotellier, "Electromagnetic, Mechanical and Thermal Analysis of a High-Speed Surface-Mounted PM Machine for Automotive Application," in International Conference on Electrical Machines (ICEM), Lausanne, Switzerland 2016: IEEE, pp. 1662-1667.

N. Bianchi, S. Bolognani, and F. Luise, "Analysis and Design of a PM Brushless Motor for High-Speed Operations," IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 629-637, 2005.

H. Lahne, D. Gerling, D. Staton, and Y. C. Chong, "Design of a 50000 rpm High-Speed High-Power Six-Phase PMSM for Use in Aircraft Applications," in International Conference on Ecological Vehicles and Renewable Energies (EVER), Monte Carlo, Monaco 2016: IEEE, pp. 1-11.

J. Dong, Y. Huang, L. Jin, and H. Lin, "Comparative Study of Surface-Mounted and Interior Permanent-Magnet Motors for High-Speed Applications," IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 26, no. 4, 2016.

T. Wang, G. Du, Z. Yu, F. Zhang, and Z. Bai, "Design and Develop of a MW Direct Drive Highspeed Permanent-Magnet Machine for compression," in International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), Busan, South Korea 2013: IEEE, pp. 892-895.

N. Uzhegov, J. Barta, J. Kurfurst, C. Ondrusek, and J. Pyrhonen, "Comparison of High-Speed Electrical Motors for a Turbo Circulator Application," IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 4308-4317, September 18 2017.

M. Beshrati, K. R. Pullen, J. D. Widmer, G. Atkinson, and V. Pickert, "Investigation of the Mechanical Constraints on the Design of a Super-high-speed Switched Reluctance Motor for Automotive Traction," in IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD), Manchester, UK, 2014: IET pp. 1-6.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
[1]
Mallin, L. and Barrans, S. 2020. A Review of the High-speed Permanent Magnet Rotor Stress Analysis used for Automotive Air-handling Machines. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 5, 4 (Apr. 2020), 448-456. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2020.5.4.1814.