Influence of Performance Appraisal on Performance of Civil Servants in Kenya


  •   Yahya Idriss Elhadi


This article is part of a doctoral project entitled “Results-Based Management and Performance of Civil Servants in Kenya”. The purpose of the article is to determine the influence of performance appraisal on performance of civil servants. During the last three decades performance appraisal has become a popular instrument in public sector reform agenda under the New Public Management which is results-driven. Its application has since become an important human resource management practice in the public sector performance management systems. The underlying aim is to foster organizational and individual efficiency and effectiveness in the public sector. Applying both descriptive survey and case study designs with a mixed research strategy, the study found that performance appraisal has a significant positive influence on performance of civil servants in Kenya. This means that, when performance appraisal process is effective, civil servants learn about themselves; gaining sense of personal worth, become more knowledgeable about their tasks, and more imperatively they learn about what are mostly valued by the employer. The study recommends for pragmatic use of performance appraisal since has significantly and positively influenced the performance of civil servants in Kenya.

Keywords: New Public Management, Results Based Management (RBM), Performance Appraisal, Performance of Civil Servants


Hood, C. and Dixon, R. (2010). The political pay-off from performance target systems: No-brainer or no-gainer? Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 20(2): I281-I298.

Halvorsen, T., Michelsen G. (2000). Good governance and public sector reform: The structural adjustment programs and their consequences for human rights development. Department of Administration and Organization Theory, University of Bergen.

Ruffner, M. E. (2002). Governing for results. Paris: OCED.

Hope, K. R. (2012). Managing the public sector in Kenya: Reform and transformation for improved performance. Journal of Public Administration and Governance,2(4);128-143.

Office of the Prime Minister (2012). Public sector reform and performance contracting. Office of Prime Minister: Government printer.

Office of the President (2006), National Performance Management Framework, PSRDS.

Ministry of Devolution and Planning (2015). Sector Performance Standards (2nd Ed), Kenya Vision 2030.

World Economic Forum. (2013). Global Competitiveness Report 2012-2013. Geneva.

Brumbach, G. (2003). Blending the we/me in performance management. Team Performance Management, an International Journal. 9 (7/8):167-173.

Armstrong, M. and Barron, A. (2005). Strategic Human Resource Management, London: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.

OECD, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (2010). OECD Reviews of Human Resource Management in Government: OECD Publishing, Paris.

Bird, P. (2003) Performance Appraisals. London, Hodder and Stroughton

Robbins, S. and Couter, M. (1999) Management 6Th Edition, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Roberts, G. and Pregitzer, M. (2007). “Why Employees Dislike Performance Appraisals.”Regent Global Business Review, 1(1);14–21.

St-Onge, S., Morin, D., Bellehumeur, M. and Dupuis, F. (2009). Manager's motivation to evaluate subordinate performance. Qualitative Research in Organisations and Management: An International Journal. 4(3):273-293

Vroom, V.B (1964)., Work and Motivation, New York:Wikey

Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong’s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice. 11th Edition, Kogan Page Limited. London.

Adams S. J. (1963) Wage Inequities, Productivity and Work Quality, Industrial Relations, Journal of Economy and Society, 3(1) 9-16.

Toppo L. and Prusty , T. (2012) From Performance Appraisal to Performance Management, Journal of Business and Management, 3(5) 1-9.

Karyeija, G. K. (2008). Performance appraisal in Uganda’s civil service: Does administration culture matter? Dissertation for degree of Doctor of philosophy, Unpublished PhD thesis, Department of administration and organization theory. University of Bergen.

Dechev, Z. (2010). Effective performance appraisal: A study into the relation between employee satisfaction and optimizing business results. Unpublished dissertation, department of economics, Erasmus University, Rotterdam.

Saleemi N. A. (2010). Principles and practice of management simplified. Nairobi, Kenya: Savani’s Book Centre Ltd.

Angote, S, M, (2006). Results based management. Unpublished paper presented at GTI., Mombasa, Kenya.

Scullen, S. E. (2011), Why do you have a performance appraisal system? Drake Management Review: 1(1), 8-11.

Roberts G. E. (2003). Employee performance appraisal system participation: A technique that works.Public Personnel Management,32(1):89-98.

Ngeno, W. C. Shadrack, B. and Cheruiyot, K. (2013). The performance appraisal policy and tools used by teacher’s service commission in Bomet constituency. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 3(16); 229-235.

Collins, K., M., T, Onwuegbuzie, A. J. & Jiao, Q. G. (2007), A mixed methods investigation of mixed methods sampling designs in social and health science research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(3): 267-294 DOI: 10.1177/1558689807299526.

Obisi, C. (2011). Employee performance appraisal and its implication for individual and organizational growth. Australian Journal of Business and Management Research, 1(9), 92-97.

Poon J. M. (2004). Effects of performance appraisal politics on job satisfaction and turnover intention. 13(3): 322-334.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Elhadi, Y. 2020. Influence of Performance Appraisal on Performance of Civil Servants in Kenya. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 5, 4 (Apr. 2020), 415-420. DOI: