Bioprocessing can help redeem the economic value for avocado (Persea americana) in Uganda. This study reviews the virgin potential of avocado bioprocessing in Uganda. Avocado consists of flesh, seed, and peel. The review indicates that the waste seed and peel are vital for development of high-value products. Both the edible part and waste (peel and seed) can be used for biogas production through a solid-state fermentation process. Biodiesel can be developed using avocado seed oil through a process called transesterification. Avocado oil is a better alternative for biodiesel production compared to waste cooking oil as it requires no further conversions processes for transforming fatty acids to esters. The starch-rich avocado seed is a suitable substrate for bioethanol, pigment and starch production. The high starch content places the avocado fruit as a potential (i) raw material for the production of bioplastics (ii) substrate for bacterial culture media production as opposed to potatoes, cereals, and cassava that double as a staple food. Avocado seeds can also be used for the production of antioxidants relevant for preventing enzymatic browning, thereby increasing product shelf life. Despite the quick wins, there is a need for increased research, financing, personnel training and development of appropriate policies to spur the benefits and untapped potential of avocado bioprocessing in Uganda. The circular economy of avocado waste alone into high-value products could increase gains in the environment and stimulate industrial development especially the cosmetic, food and pharmaceutical industries in Uganda.
R. G. Araújo, R. M. Rodriguez-Jasso, H. A. Ruiz, M. M. E. Pintado, and C. N. Aguilar, "Avocado by-products: Nutritional and functional properties," Trends in Food Science and Technology, vol. 80, pp. 51-60, 2018.
A. C. C. Egbuonu, C. I. Opara, D. Akachukwu, and U. B. Onyedikachi, "Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Avocado Pear (Persea americana) Seed on Normal and Monosodium Glutamate-compromised Rats' Hepatic Histo-morphology and Serum Bio-functional Parameters," Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 53-62, 2018.
M. A. Tremocoldi et al., "Exploration of avocado by-products as natural sources of bioactive compounds," PLoS One, vol. 13, no. 2, 2018.
N. Kiggundu, K. W. Migliaccio, B. Schaffer, Y. Li, and J. H. Crane, "Water savings, nutrient leaching, and fruit yield in a young avocado orchard as affected by irrigation and nutrient management," Irrigation Science, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 275-286, 2012.
Statista, "Global avocado production 2000-2018," 2019, Available: https://www.statista.com/statistics/577455/world-avocado-production/.
A.-J. Perea-Moreno, M.-J. Aguilera-Ureña, and F. Manzano-Agugliaro, "Fuel properties of avocado stone," Fuel, vol. 186, pp. 358-364, 2016.
FAO, "FAOSTAT Statistical Database of the United Nation Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) ", ed: Statistical Division, 2019.
Y. Dijkxhoorn, M. van Galen, J. Barungi, J. Okiira, J. Gema, and V. Janssen, "The vegetables and fruit sector in Uganda: Competitiveness, investment and trade options," Wageningen Economic Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands9463952039, 2019.
R. Sonko, E. Njue, J. Ssebuliba, and A. de Jager, "Pro-Poor Horticulture in East Africa and South East Asia," The Horticulture sector in Uganda. Retrieved, vol. 2, 2005.
B. Adaramola, A. Onigbinde, and O. Shokunbi, "Physiochemical properties and antioxidant potential of Persea Americana seed oil," Chemistry International, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 168-175, 2016.
E. Hurtado-Fernández, A. Fernández-Gutiérrez, and A. Carrasco-Pancorbo, "Avocado fruit— Persea americana," 2018, Available: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803138-4.00001-0.
P. F. Duarte, M. A. Chaves, C. D. Borges, and C. R. B. Mendonça, "Avocado: characteristics, health benefits and uses," Ciência Rural, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 747-754, 2016.
O. Tibyangye, "Sunday gets livelihood in adding value to avocado," in Daily Monitor, ed, 29 March 2017.
S. Markov, "Bioprocess engineering," in Applied Science, D. Franceschetti, Ed.: CRC Press, 2012, pp. 240–245.
J. Olaoye and M. Odewole, "Introduction to Food and Bioprocess Engineering Discipline," 2015, Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/298353913_Introduction_to_Food_and_Bioprocess_Engineering_Discipline.
S. Satriana, M. D. Supardan, N. Arpi, and W. A. Wan Mustapha, "Development of Methods Used in the Extraction of Avocado Oil," European Journal of Lipid Science Technology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 1-12, 2019.
A. A. Aliyu, "Biogas potential of some selected kitchen wastes within Kaduna Metropolis," American Journal of Engineering Research, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 53-63, 2017.
P. A. Owusu and S. Asumadu-Sarkodie, "A review of renewable energy sources, sustainability issues and climate change mitigation," Cogent Engineering, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1–14, 2016.
G. Kenasa and E. Kena, "Optimization of Biogas Production from Avocado Fruit Peel Wastes Co- digestion with Animal Manure Collected from Juice Vending House in Gimbi Town, Ethiopia," Fermentation Technology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2019.
A. Spence, E. B. Madrigal, R. Patil, and Y. B. Fernández, "Evaluation of anaerobic digestibility of energy crops and agricultural by-products," Bioresource Technology Reports, vol. 5, pp. 243-250, 2019.
A. R. Woldu, Y. N. Ashagrie, and Y. A. Tsigie, "Bioethanol production from avocado seed wastes using Saccharomyces cerevisiae," American Journal of Environment, Energy Power Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2015.
K. Dagde, "Extraction of vegetable oil from avocado seeds for production of biodiesel," Journal of Applied Sciences Environmental Management, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 215-221, 2019.
MEMD, "Electiricity Connections Policy: Financing and Implementation for Connections, Period: 2018 - 2027," p., 2016.
D. Bamwesigye, S. Darkwah, P. Hlavackova, and V. Kupcak, "Firewood and Charcoal Production in Uganda," in Proceedings of the 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM, 2017, vol. 17, no. 33, pp. 521 – 528.
K. F. Austin and M. T. Mejia, "Household air pollution as a silent killer: women’s status and solid fuel use in developing nations," Population Environment Ecology Research, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 1-25, 2017.
M. Derudi et al., "Emissions of air pollutants from scented candles burning in a test chamber," Atmospheric environment, vol. 55, pp. 257-262, 2012.
L. Deressa, S. Libsu, R. Chavan, D. Manaye, and A. Dabassa, "Production of biogas from fruit and vegetable wastes mixed with different wastes," Environment Ecology Research, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 65-71, 2015.
M.-A. Perea-Moreno, E. Samerón-Manzano, and A.-J. Perea-Moreno, "Biomass as renewable energy: worldwide research trends," Sustainability, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1-19, 2019.
L. Chel-Guerrero, E. Barbosa-Martín, A. Martínez-Antonio, E. González-Mondragón, and D. Betancur-Ancona, "Some physicochemical and rheological properties of starch isolated from avocado seeds," International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 86, pp. 302-308, 2016.
D. Dabas, R. J. Elias, J. D. Lambert, and G. R. J. J. o. f. s. Ziegler, "A colored avocado seed extract as a potential natural colorant," Journal of Food Science, vol. 76, no. 9, pp. C1335-C1341, 2011.
D. Dabas, R. M Shegog, G. R Ziegler, and J. D Lambert, "Avocado (Persea americana) seed as a source of bioactive phytochemicals," Current Pharmaceutical Design, vol. 19, no. 34, pp. 6133-6140, 2013.
K. A. Maryam and Santosa, "Utilization Starch of Avocado Seed (Persea Americana Mill.) as a Raw Material for Dextrin," Journal of Food Science and Engineering, no. 6, pp. 32-37, 2016.
T. V. Nguyen, T.-H. N. Ma, T. T. Nguyen, V.-N. K. Ho, and H. T. Vo, "Optimization of maltodextrin production from avocado seed starch by response surface methodology," in AIP Conference Proceedings, 2018, vol. 1954, no. 1, p. 040004: AIP Publishing LLC.
I. R. A. Silva, M. Magnani, F. S. M. de Albuquerque, K. S. Batista, J. d. S. Aquino, and V. Queiroga-Neto, "Characterization of the chemical and structural properties of native and acetylated starches from avocado (Persea americana Mill.) seeds," International Journal of Food Properties, vol. 20, no. sup1, pp. S279-S289, 2017.
D. Nsubuga, N. Banadda, and N. Kiggundu, "Innovations in Value-Addition of Agricultural By-Products in Uganda," Journal of Environmental Protection, vol. 10, no. 11, p. 1493, 2019.
I. Raji and P. Onu, "Untapped Wealth Potential in Fruit for Uganda Community," International Journal Of Advanced Academic Research, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 17-25, 2017.
H. Rachimoellah, D. A. Resti, A. Zibbeni, and I. W. J. J. T. M. Susila, "Production of biodiesel through transesterification of avocado (Persea gratissima) seed oil using base catalyst," vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 85-90, 2009.
S. Demshemino, M. Yahaya, I. Nwadike, and L. Okora, "Comparative analysis of biodiesel and petroleum diesel," International journal of Education Research, vol. 1, p. 8, 2013.
S. Deepalakshmi, A. Sivalingam, M. Thirumarimurugan, N. Yasvanthrajan, and P. Sivakumar, "In-situ transesterification and process optimization of biodiesel from waste avocado seed," Journal of Chemical Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 974, p. 2115, 2014.
M. Masturi, A. Cristina, N. Istiana, S. Sunarno, and P. Dwijananti, "Ethanol Production From Fermentation of Arum Manis Mango Seeds (Mangifera Indica L.) Using Saccharomyces Crevisiaea," Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 56–60, 2017.
V. Beschkov, "Biogas, biodiesel and bioethanol as multifunctional renewable fuels and raw materials," Frontiers in Bioenergy and Biofuels, pp. 185-205, 2017.
D. Lachenmeier, "Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity," Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, vol. 3, no. 26, pp. 1–16, 2008.
K. Sugibayashi et al., "Halal Cosmetics: A Review on Ingredients, Production, and Testing Methods," Cosmetics, vol. 6, no. 3, p. 37, 2019.
P. Hashim and D. Mat Hashim, "A review of cosmetic and personal care products: Halal perspective and detection of ingredient," Pertanika Journals of Science Technology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 281-292, 2013.
A. Bušić et al., "Bioethanol production from renewable raw materials and its separation and purification: A review," Food Technology Biotechnology, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 289-311, 2018.
G. Kampf, "Efficacy of ethanol against viruses in hand disinfection," Journal of Hospital Infection, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 331-338, 2018.
B. R. Raghubanshi, S. Sapkota, A. Adhikari, A. Dutta, U. Bhattarai, and R. Bhandari, "Use of 90% ethanol to decontaminate stethoscopes in resource limited settings," Antimicrobial Resistance Infection Control, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 68, 2017.
P. Wanyama, B. Kiremire, P. Ogwok, and J. Murumu, "Indigenous plants in Uganda as potential sources of textile dyes," African Journal of Plant Science, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 28-39, 2011.
Ş. Canbolat, N. Merdan, H. Dayıoğlu, and D. Koçak, "Investigation of the dyeability behavior of banana fibers with natural dye extract obtained from turmeric plants," Marmara Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 40–44, 2015.
S. M. F. Kabir, S. Chakraborty, S. M. A. Hoque, and K. Mathur, "Sustainability Assessment of Cotton-Based Textile Wet Processing," Clean Technology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 232-246, 2019.
B. Bhandari and A. Rani, "Dyeing of protein fabrics exploring locally available weed plants," Journal of Applied Natural Science, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 475-478, 2018.
N. A. Sagar, S. Pareek, S. Sharma, E. M. Yahia, and M. G. Lobo, "Fruit and vegetable waste: Bioactive compounds, their extraction, and possible utilization," Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science Food Safety, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 512-531, 2018.
R. Manek, P. Builders, B. Kolling, M. Emeje, and O. Kunle, "Physicochemical and Binder Properties of Starch Obtained from Cyperus esculentus," AAPS Pharm Sci Tech, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 379-388, 2012.
P. F. Builders and M. I. Arhewoh, "Pharmaceutical applications of native starch in conventional drug delivery," Starch‐Stärke, vol. 68, no. 9-10, pp. 864-873, 2016.
T. Tesfaye et al., "Valorisation of avocado seeds: extraction and characterisation of starch for textile applications," Clean Technologies Environmental Policy, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 2135-2154, 2018.
J. Wilkinson and R. J. A. f. D. Rocha, Wallingford, UK: CABI for FAO, "Agro-industry trends, patterns and development impacts," Agroindustries for Development, Wallingford, UK: CABI for FAO UNIDO, pp. 46-91, 2009.
M. Cruz-Romero and J. Kerry, "Crop-based biodegradable packaging and its environmental implications," CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, vol. 3, pp. 1-25, 2008.
I. Ioannou and M. Ghoul, "Prevention of enzymatic browning in fruit and vegetables," European Scientific Journal, vol. 9, pp. 310-341, 2013.
Q. He and Y. Luo, "Enzymatic browning and its control in fresh-cut produce," Stewart Postharvest Review, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1–7, 2007.
D. A. V. Amado et al., "Antioxidant and antibacterial activity and preliminary toxicity analysis of four varieties of avocado (Persea americana Mill.)," Brazilian Journal of Food Technology, vol. 22, pp. 1-11, 2019.
L. A. Fernández-Castañeda, H. Arias-Candamil, B. Zapata-Torres, and M. P. Ardila-Castañeda, "Evaluation of the antimicrobial capacity of Hass avocado seed extract (Persea americana) for potential application in the meat industry," Dyna, vol. 85, no. 207, pp. 346-350, 2018.
F. J. Segovia, G. I. Hidalgo, J. Villasante, X. Ramis, and M. P. Almajano, "Avocado seed: A comparative study of antioxidant content and capacity in protecting oil models from oxidation," Molecules, vol. 23, no. 10, p. 2421, 2018.
B. Andualem and A. Gessesse, "Production of microbial medium from defatted brebra (Milletia ferruginea) seed flour to substitute commercial peptone agar," Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 790-797, 2013.
O. Tzintzun-Camacho, L. Sánchez-Segura, A. Z. Minchaca-Acosta, L. M. Rosales-Colunga, A. Hernández-Orihuela, and A. Martínez-Antonio, "Development of bacterial culture medium from avocado seed waste," Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 831-842, 2016.
Z. Alkhfaji and A.-a. Abd-Alrazaq, "Bee collected pollen load (BCPL) as alternative culture media for bacterial and yeast growth," Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Research, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 830-835, 2018.
H. H. Youssef et al., "Plant-based culture media: Efficiently support culturing rhizobacteria and correctly mirror their in-situ diversity," Journal of advanced research, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 305-316, 2016.
M. University, "Annual Report 2015," 2015, Available: http://musph.ac.ug/images/MakSPH_Reports/Makerere-PDD-Annual-report-MAY-2016-email.pdf.
National Planning Authority, "Uganda vision 2040," 2013.
MEMD, "Biomass Energy Strategy (BEST) Uganda," 2013, Available: https://www.undp.org/content/dam/uganda/docs/UNDPUg2014 - Biomass BEST Strategy(compressed).pdf.
R. Price, "“Clean” Cooking Energy in Uganda–technologies, impacts, and key barriers and enablers to market acceleration," 2017.
E. Abatenh, B. Gizaw, Z. Tsegaye, and M. Wassie, "Application of microorganisms in bioremediation-review," Journal of Environmental Microbiology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 2-9, 2017.
C. González-Figueredo, R. A. Flores-Estrella, and O. A. Rojas-Rejón, "Fermentation: Metabolism, kinetic models, and bioprocessing," in Current topics in biochemical engineering: IntechOpen, 2018.
H. Purohit, A. Kapley, A. Khardenavis, A. Qureshi, and N. A. Dafale, "Insights in waste management bioprocesses using genomic tools," in Advances in applied microbiology, vol. 97: Elsevier, 2016, pp. 121-170.
E. Munyambonera, M. L. Mayanja, D. Nampeewo, and A. Adong, "Access and use of credit in Uganda: Unlocking the dilemma of financing small holder farmers," in "Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC) Policy Brief No. 25," 2014.
J. Zhou, H. Jiao, and J. Li, "Providing appropriate technology for emerging markets: Case study on China’s solar thermal industry," Sustainability, vol. 9, no. 2, p. 178, 2017.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.