The World Beyond Black Holes

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Wim Vegt

Abstract

To understand the physics of Black Holes, it is important to understand the first law in Physics which controls our entire universe. This is the law of “Perfect Equilibrium”. Within the entire universe there is always a prefect equilibrium between all the physical forces like gravity, forces of inertia, radiation pressure and Electro-Magnetic Interaction forces at any time, in any direction and at any space coordinate. This is the fundamental law in physics on which also the existence of a Black Hole has been grounded. This new theory will explain the forces within a beam of light interacting with gravity while the beam of light propagates within the gravitational field generated by a black hole. When we look at modern Physics, we can only be impressed by an enormous amount of knowledge and a complete New World of technical applications. We now live in the century of the impressive victory of the new science and the new technology over the old-fashioned world and the old-fashioned way of thinking. Great shifts in the way of thinking and the technological achievements are mostly characterized by an important scientific publication in a century that changes everything in that century. We can recognize the century of Isaac Newton who triggered in 1687 the seismic shift in thinking with his famous publication “Philisophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). We recognize the century of James Clerk Maxwell who triggered in 1865 the large shift in thinking with his famous publication “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field”. We recognize the century of Albert Einstein who triggered in 1905 the large changings in thinking with his famous theory of Special Relativity represented in his publication “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”. Manifesting a “New Theory” and a “New Way of Thinking” with important contributions of Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré and Hermann Minkowski. It is recognizable that with the sudden change in thinking in a new period, a new kind of mutual common sense and a general agreement by many scientists of the new theory and the new way of thinking arises. The “New Theory” will be protected by common sense and mutual agreement. This new way of thinking settles down in the scientific society and become immovable. Other options disappear and simply do not exist anymore. Which will make it almost impossible for the following “New Theory” to rise. The “New Theory” which will be introduced in this article has been based on the fundamental principle of “Perfect Equilibrium within the Universe”. A fundamental universal principle in Physics which has already been expressed by Newton’s famous 3 equations, published in 1687 in “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton’s famous Equations in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton’s 4-dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell Equations and Newton’s law in the 4th dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non-relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation.


Keywords: General Relativity, Classical Electrodynamics, Relativistic Quantum Physics, Electromagnetic-Gravitational Interaction, Dirac Equation, Maxwell Tensor, Energy Momentum Tensor

References

Oki Gunawana and Yudistira Virgus; The one-dimensional camelback potential in the parallel dipole line trap: Stability conditions and finite size effect; Journal of Applied Physics 121, 133902 (2017); https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4978876

IBM Blog Research; A new effect in electromagnetism discovered – 150 years later; https://phys.org/news/2017-10-effect-electromagnetism-years.html

J. W. Vegt, A Continuous Model of Matter based on AEONs, Physics Essays ,1995, Volume 8, Number 2, 201-224 A Continuous model of Matter, (https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/ra7ng )

Z. K. Minev, S. O. Mundhada, S. Shankar, P. Reinhold, R. Gutiérrez-Jáuregui, R.J. Schoelkopf, N. Mirrahimi, H.J. Carmichael and M. H. Devoret; To catch and reverse a quantum jump mid-flight; Nature; 03 June 2019 equilibrium beyond Einstein 4-Dimensional, Kaluza-Klein 5-Dimensional and Superstring 10- and 11 Dimensional Curved Hyperspaces. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-019-1287-z

Li-Xin Li; A New Unified Theory of Electromagnetic and Gravitational Interactions, Frontiers of Physics, Volume 11, Issue 6, article id. 110402 (2016); arxiv.org/abs/1511.01260

Richard Easther, Brian R Greene, Mark G Jackson and Daniel Kabat; String windings in the early universe, Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Volume 2005, February 2005

J. Wheeler, Phys. Rev. 97, 511 (1955).

Dirk Englund, Arka Majumdar, Michal Bajcsy, Andrei Faraon, Pierre Petroff, and Jelena Vučković; Ultrafast Photon-Photon Interaction in a Strongly Coupled Quantum Dot-Cavity System, Phys. Rev Lett. 108, 093604, March 2012, DOI : 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.093604

L. Filipe O. Costa, Georgios Lukes-Gerakopoulos, and Oldřich Semerák; Spinning particles in general relativity: Momentum-velocity relation for the Mathisson-Pirani spin condition; Phys. Rev. D 97, 084023 – Published 16 April 2018

Ryotaro Kase, Masato Minamitsuji, and Shinji Tsujikawa; Relativistic stars in vector-tensor theories; Phys. Rev. D 97, 084009 – Published 9 April 2018

Hector O. Silva, Jeremy Sakstein, Leonardo Gualtieri, Thomas P. Sotiriou, and Emanuele Berti; Spontaneous Scalarization of Black Holes and Compact Stars from a Gauss-Bonnet Coupling;Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 131104 (2018) - Published 30 March 2018

Jahed Abedi, Hannah Dykaar, and Niayesh Afshordi; Echoes from the abyss: Tentative evidence for Planck-scale structure at black hole horizons ;Phys. Rev. D 96, 082004 (2017) - Published 26 October 2017

A. Hees, T. Do, A. M. Ghez, G. D. Martinez, S. Naoz, E. E. Becklin, A. Boehle, S. Chappell, D. Chu, A. Dehghanfar, K. Kosmo, J. R. Lu, K. Matthews, M. R. Morris, S. Sakai, R. Schödel, and G. Witzel; Testing General Relativity with Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole in Our Galactic Center; Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 211101 (2017) - Published 25 May 2017

J. W. Vegt, A Continuous Model of Matter based on AEONs, Physics Essays ,1995, Volume 8, Number 2, 201-224 A Continuous model of Matter ( https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/ra7ng )

J. W. Vegt, Unified 4-Dimensional Hyperspace Equilibrium beyond Einstein 4-Dimensional, Kaluza-Klein 5-Dimensional and Superstring 10- and 11 Dimensional Curved Hyperspaces ( https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/vq2a4 )

J. M. Maldacena, Black Holes in String Theory, Princeton University, arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/960723533.

V. C. de Andrade and J. G. Pereira, Gravitational Lorentz force and the description of the gravitational interaction, Phys. Rev. D 56, 468

Volodymyr Krasnoholovets, Motion of a Relativistic Particle and the Vacuum, Physics Essays, vol 10, no 3, 1997, 407-416, arXiv:quant-ph/9903077

Donald H Kobe ; Quantum power in de Broglie–Bohm theory ; Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical, Volume 40 - Number 19 , Published 24 April 2007

.J. W. Vegt. Origin of “De Broglie Waves” (Calculations in Mathematica 11.0 in PDF format) Publisher Wolfram. https://doi.org/10.31219/osf.io/gbn4p

J.W. Vegt. Calculations in Mathematica. Solutions for an electromagnetic field under the influence of a longitudinal gravitational field.

Minev, Z., Mundhada, S., Shankar, S. et al. To catch and reverse a quantum jump mid-flight. Nature 570, 200–204 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1287-z.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
[1]
Vegt, W. 2020. The World Beyond Black Holes. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. 5, 6 (Jun. 2020), 632-645. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1945.