Incised Valley Depositional System of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation of the Gongola Sub-basin Northern Benue Trough N.E. Nigeria


  •   Shettima Bukar

  •   Mohammed Bukar

  •   Asabe Kuku

  •   Bintu Shettima

  •   Ishaku H. Kamale


This research was carried out in the Gongola Sub-basin of the Northern Benue Trough aimed at deciphering of the paleo-depositional environment of the Yolde Formation based on facies on facies analysis. Six lithofacies were identified to include trough crossbedded sandstone facies (St), massive bedded sandstone facies (Sm), planar crossbedded sandstone facies (Sp), ripple laminated sandstone facies (Sr), parallel sandstone facies (Sl) and mudstone facies (Fm). These build into two facies association of fluvial channel and tidally influenced fluvial channel facies associations. The fluvial successions typical characterizes the lower stratigraphic horizons and their contained dominances of trough crossbedded sandstone facies with high channel to overbank facies and contained mud-clast reflecting deep, high energy braided river system. The submergences of these channels by surging sea level rise generated the tidally influenced fluvial facies association and this package characteristically defines the upper interval stratigraphic architecture of this formation, displaying occasional bi-directional current system and abundant marine ichnogenera. This architectural symmetry is reflective of an incised valley fills, developing as a consequence of Cenomanian transgressive phase induced by the mid-Cretaceous global marine transgression.       

Keywords: Incised valley, depositional environment, Yolde Formation, Gongola Sub-basin, Benue Trough


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Bukar, S., Bukar, M., Kuku, A., Shettima, B. and Kamale, I. 2020. Incised Valley Depositional System of the Cretaceous Yolde Formation of the Gongola Sub-basin Northern Benue Trough N.E. Nigeria. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 5, 8 (Aug. 2020), 870-876. DOI: