Air conditioning system is an indispensable part of buildings today. The cost of this system increases with the rise in energy consumption which poses a challenge as well as air distribution in large auditoria. Analysis of results can also be daunting when designing this system. The study focuses on designing an air conditioning system in a large auditorium, applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and visualizing the result in a Virtual Reality (VR) environment. The 3-dimensional model of the 520-capacity Technology Lecture Theatre, University of Ibadan, Nigeria was drawn with Autodesk Revit and modified into the geometry applicable for Displacement Ventilation (DV) and Mixed Ventilation (MV) for ease of numerical analysis with ANSYS Fluent. The building model and simulation results were then imported into Unity software for visualization in VR. The DV achieved better thermal comfort and air distribution in the computer simulation. At a supply temperature of 292.15 K, the DV system was able to keep the auditorium temperature at about 296.50 K, while the MV system at a supply temperature of 289.15 K was only able to maintain the temperature at 295.40 K. The temperature profile showed that the lower region where the students were seated was colder in DV compared to MV by at least 3 K. The results were also observed from a convenient position in VR. This study, with the aid of CFD and VR, was able to establish that displacement ventilation design has better air flow, lower energy consumption and is efficient for an air conditioning system in a large auditorium.
X. R. Ding, Y. Y. Guo, and Y. Y. Chen, “Design and simulation of an air conditioning project in a hospital based on computational fluid dynamics,” Archives of Civil Engineering, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 23–38, Sep. 2017.
Y. Hua, G. Huafang, L. Zhenrong, and Z. Bo, “CFD simulation of air-conditioning system in the public area of a metro station and research on energy-saving operation scheme,” Advances in Engineering Research., vol. 135, pp. 699–705, 2017.
A. Scanlon and A. Calderone, “CFD benchmarking: Hamer Hall Auditoriun case study,” in Proceedings of Building Simulation: Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, pp. 1647–1654, vol. 12, Sydney, 2011.
S. Gilani, H. Montazeri and B. Blocken, “CFD simulation of stratified indoor environment in displacement ventilation: Validation and sensitivity analysis,” Building Environment, vol. 95, pp. 299–313, 2016.
Q. J. Kwong, H. F. Chen, and A. A. Razak, “Computational simulation of indoor thermal environment in a tropical educational hall with displacement ventilation,” Pertanika Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 25, pp. 77–88, Jan. 2017.
W. K. Chow and T. Hong, “Application of computational fluid dynamics in building services engineering,” Appl. Comput. Fluid Dyn. Build. Serv. Eng., vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 425–436, 1996.
M. M. E. Raman, “Computational fluid dynamics analysis of HVAC system in auditorium,” International Journal of Advanced Research and Development, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 68-72, May 2016.
L.N., Cao, J. Cao, S. Lee, Y. Zhang, and X. Tie, “Numerical simulation of the micro environment in the Han Yang Mausoleum Museum,” Aerosol Air Qual. Res., vol. 12, pp. 544-552, July 2012.
M. M. Tap, H. M. Kamar, A. K. Marsono, N. Kamsah, and K. A. M. Salimin, "Simulation of thermal comfort of a residential house, "International Journal of Computer Science Issues, vol. 8, no. 5; pp. 200-208, Sep. 2011.
Q. Li, H. Yoshino, A. Mochida, B. Lei, Q. Meng, L. Zhao, and Y. Lun, “CFD study of the thermal environment in an air-conditioned train station building,” Building and Environment, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1452–1465, 2009.
Y. Won, M. S. Waring, and D. Rim, (2019). “Understanding the spatial heterogeneity of indoor OH and HO2 due to photolysis of HONO using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation,” Environmental Science & Technology, vol. 53, pp. 14470-4478, Nov. 2019.
M. J. Banjac,“Application of computational fluid dynamics in cooling systems design for special purpose objects,” FME Transactions, vol. 42, no. 1, 26-33, Jan. 2014.
[M. Hosokawa, T. Fukuda, T. Michikawa and A. L. I. Motamedi, “Integrating CFD and VR for indoor thermal environment design feedback,” The 21st International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA 2016), pp. 663–672, Melbourne, 2016.
C. S. Sanchez, and Z. Xiaoqin, “Visualization of CFD simulation results in VR environment for design feedback,” Presented at Building Performance Analysis Conference and SimBuild co-organized by ASHRAE and IBPSA-USA Chicago, IL, USA, September 26-28, 2018.
J.-R. Lin, J. Cao, J.-P. Zhang, C. van Treeck, and J. Frisch, “Visualization of indoor thermal environment on mobile devices based on augmented reality and computational fluid dynamics,” Automation in Construction, vol. 103, pp. 26–40, 2019.
M. Kim, S. Yi, D. Jung, S. Park, D. Seo, “Augmented-reality visualization of aerodynamics simulation in sustainable cloud computing,” Sustainability, vol. 10, 1-14, April 2018.
T. Fukuda, K. Yokoi, N. Yabuki, and A. Motamedi, "An indoor thermal environment design system for renovation using augmented reality. Journal of Computational Design and Engineering, vol. 6, pp. 179–188, 2019.
J. M. D. Delgado, L. Oyedele, P. Demian, and T. Beach, "A research agenda for augmented and virtual reality in architecture, engineering and construction,” Advanced Engineering Informatics, vol. 45, pp. 1-21, June 2020.
M. Berger, and V. Cristie, “CFD post-processing in Unity3D,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 51, pp. 2913–2922, June 2015.
J. Moreland, J. Wang, Y. Liu, F. Li, L. Shen, B. Wu, and C. Zhou, “Integration of augmented reality with computational fluid dynamics for power plant training,” Presented at the International Conference on Modeling, Simulation and Visualization Methods, Las Vegas, NE, USA, July 22–25, 2013.
R. A. Parsons, ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals, SI edition, Atlanta, GA, USA: America Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineering Inc., 1997, Chapter 27 and 30.
R. Abu, “Ducting analysis of central air-conditioning system of Faculty of Technology Lecture Theatre,” B.Sc. project report, Dept. of Mech. Eng., Univ. of Ibadan, Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 2001.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.