Wear Resistance Improvement of Copper Alloys Using a Thermochemically Obtained Zinc-Rich Coating

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Omar Alvarez

  •   Carlos Valdés

  •   Arturo Barba

  •   Rafael González

  •   Raúl Valdéz

  •   Celso Cruz

  •   Dayi Gilberto Agredo

  •   Alba Covelo

  •   Miguel Ángel Hernández

Abstract

It has been developed a thermochemical process that has been applied on copper alloys: brass and bronze, using pure zinc powder, obtaining a zinc-rich wear protective coating. The layers obtained by a diffusion process, on brass (alloy C36000) and bronze specimens (alloy SAE 62), were characterized using a scanning electron microscope, EDAX microanalysis, Vickers microhardness, X-Ray diffraction analysis, and sliding wear test. The chemical analysis showed a layer composition of 62 % Zn and 38 % Cu, on average. The microhardness for thermochemical treated brass was 496HV and 598HV for bronze; thus, a microhardness increase for brass is 468% and 532% for bronze. It was made an X-Ray diffraction analysis, confirming the results obtained with the chemical analysis and crystalline structure for coating. It showed the presence of Cu64Zn36 and Cu5Zn8 phases. The wear tests demonstrated that treated specimens show better wear resistance than non-protected specimens.


Keywords: Copper Alloys, Thermochemical Treatment, Wear Resistance, Zinc-Rich Coating

References

F.C. Porter, Corrosion Resistance of Zinc and Zinc Alloys; New York Marcel Dekker, Inc., CRC Press, 1994, p 87-96

P.E. Vasilevich, “Galvanizing, sherardizing and other zinc diffusion coatings,” British Corrosion Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 58, 1976.

A.J. Vázquez and J.J. Damborenea, Ciencia e Ingeniería de la Superficie de los Materiales Metálicos, Textos Universitarios, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2000, pp. 282-294.

G. Vourlias, N. Pistofidis, D. Chaliampalias, and E. Pavlidou, “A comparative study of the structure and the corrosion behavior of zinc coatings deposited with various methods,” Surf. Coat. Tech., vol. 200, pp. 6594–6600, June 2006.

N. Pistofidis, G. Vourlias, D. Chaliampalias, K. Chrysafis, G. Stergioudis, and E.K. Polychroniadis, “On the mechanism of formation of zinc pack coatings,” J. Alloy. Compd., vol. 407, pp. 221–225, January 2006.

G. Vourlias, N. Pistofidis, D. Chaliampalias, E. Pavlidou, and G. Stergioudis, “On the corrosion mechanism of zinc pack coatings deposited on low carbon steel: results of laboratory tests,” Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 152-160, November 2013.

F. Natrup and W. Graf, “Sherardizing: corrosion protection of steels by zinc diffusion coatings,” in Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Steels, Sherart b.v., Helmond, Impreglon Se, Elsevier, 2015, pp. 737-750.

V.M. Konstantinov and I.A. Buloichyk, “Some aspects of sherardizing implementation during anti-corrosion protection of heat-treated metal parts,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 1-4, 2015.

D. Wortelen, R. Frieling. H. Bracht, W. Graf and F. Nortrup, “Impact on Zn halide addition on the growth of Zinc-rich layers generated by sherardizing,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 263, p 66-77, February 2015.

C. Valdés, “Galvanizado por Difusión de Aleaciones de Cobre y Caracterización de los Revestimientos Obtenidos," Ph.D. Thesis, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, México, 2010.

E. Kirkendall, L. Thomassen, and C. Upthegrove, “Rates of Diffusion of Copper and Zinc in Alpha Brass,” AIME Trans. 133, pp. 186-203, 1939.

H. Nakajima, “The Discovery and acceptance of the Kirkendall Effect: The result of a Short Research Career,” Journal of Metals, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 15-19, June 1997.

C. Sequeira and L. Amaral, “Role of Kirkendall effect in diffusion processes in solids,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1−11, January 2014.

R.A. McCoy, “Cu-Zn Binary Phase Diagram and Diffusion Couples,” NASA 19920021026, presented at the NASA-LeRC, Cleveland, OH, June 1, 1992.

F.S. Palubinskas, "Diffusion in alpha brass," Ph.D., Thesis, Iowa State University, United States, 1952.

A. Hoxhaa, H. Oettelb and D. Hegerb, “Calculation of the interdiffusion coefficient in the Cu–Zn diffusion couple,” AIP Conference Proceedings, American Institute of Physics, February 3, 2010.

B. Sivaiah, S.P. “Gupta, Diffusion induced grain boundary migration in the Cu-Zn System,” Materials Characterization, vol. 59, no. 9, pp. 1141-1151, September 2008.

A.K. Pradhan, S.P. Gupta and K. Mondal, “Effect of Zn concentration on diffusion induced grain boundary migration in Cu –Zn system, Transactions of The Indian Institute of Metals,” vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 233-239, August 2009.

X.L. Kong, Y.B. Liu and L.J. Qiao,” Dry sliding tribological behavior of nanocrystalline Cu–Zn surface layer after annealing in air,” Wear, vol. 256, pp. 747–753, April 2004.

F. Hung, T. Lui, L. Chen and J. You, “The Effect of Electrical Current on Tensile Properties and Vibration Characteristics of Sn-9Zn-1Cu Lead Free Solder,” Materials Transactions, The Japan Institute of Metals, vol. 47, no. 12, pp. 2935-2941, December 2006.

J. Song, Y. Shen, Ch. Su, Y. Lai and Y. Chiu, “Strain Rate Dependence on Nanoidentation Responses of Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Electronic Solder Joints with Cu and Ag substrates,” Mats Trans, Japan Institute of Metals, vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 1231-1234, April 2009.

E.A. Owen and G.D. Preston, “X Ray Analysis of zinc-copper alloys,” presented at the Proceedings of the Physical Society of London, London, 1923.

S. Lunarska, “Kinetics of Diffusion Galvanizing for Brass,” Metal Science and Heat Treatment, vol. 23, pp. 794-797, November 1981.

M. Kowalski and P.J. Spencer, “Thermodynamic Reevaluation of the Cu-Zn System,” Journal of Phase Equilibria, Vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 432-438, August 1993.

W. Gierlotka. and S. Chen, “Thermodynamic Descriptions of the Cu-Zn System,” Journal of Materials Research, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 258-268, January 2008.

O. Antonoglou,, J. Moustaka, I. Dimosthenis S. Adamakis, I. Sperdouli, A. Pantazaki, M. Moustakas and C. Dendrinou, “Nanobrass CuZn Nanoparticles as Foliar Spray Nonphytotoxic Fungicides,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces, vol. 10, pp. 4450−4461, January 2018.

Y. Sun and Y. Ren, “New preparation method of porous copper powder through vacuum dealloying,” Vacuum, vol. 122, pp. 215-217, December 2015.

D. Chaliampalias, M. Papazoglou, S. Tsipas, E. Pavlidou, S. Skolianos, G. Stergioudis and G. Vourlias, “Fabrication and examination of oxidation resistance of zinc coated copper and brass components by chemical deposition,” Surface Engineering, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 362-367, November 2013.

Z. Ke-sheng, X. Sheng-qi and Z. Jing-en, “Effect of temperature on mechanical alloying of Cu-Zn and Cu-Cr system,” Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, vol. 19, pp. 1206-1214, October 2009.

M. Hacibrahimoglu, M. Bedir and A. Yavuz, “Structural and Corrosion Study of Uncoated and Zn-Cu Coated Magnesium-Based Alloy,” Metals, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 322, December 2016.

X. Zou, X. Lu and X. Xie, “Electrodeposition of Zn, Cu, and Zn-Cu Alloys from Deep Eutectic Solvents, Ionic Liquids: Progress and Developments,” Ed. Intech Open, Web of Science, 2017, ch. 12, pp. 263-281.

H. Li, K. Shin and G. Henkelman, “Effects of ensembles, ligands and strain on adsorbate binding to alloy surfaces,” The Journal of Chemical Physics , vol. 149, pp. 174705, November 2018.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
[1]
Alvarez, O., Valdés, C., Barba, A., González, R., Valdéz, R., Cruz, C., Agredo, D., Covelo, A. and Hernández, M. 2020. Wear Resistance Improvement of Copper Alloys Using a Thermochemically Obtained Zinc-Rich Coating. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. 5, 9 (Sep. 2020), 1089-1096. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2070.