The Impact of Node Density and Buffer Size on DTN Routing Protocols with Energy Efficiency


  •   Md. Khalid Mahbub Khan

  •   Kawsaruzzaman Kawsaruzzaman

  •   Md. Mahbubur Rahman

  •   Al- Imtiaz

  •   Al- Imtiaz


Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) architecture comprises of portable devices known as nodes, considered a resource-limited networking system. These nodes in DTN utilize the ‘Store Carry and Forward’ approach to route data since the end to end connections are absent here due to a large number of constant intermittent connectivity. The energy quantity of nodes is restricted because limited-lifetime rechargeable batteries drive them. Accordingly, energy is an essential resource in DTN scenarios. For efficient network performance, including proper energy usage, nodes need to expense a minimum amount of energy. For this reason, it is essential to select an energy-efficient forwarding strategy and exhibit excellent performance among existent forwarding approaches in the DTN environment for routing messages effectively. In this paper, we have studied the energy efficiency of conventional DTN routing protocols: Epidemic, Spray and Wait, Spray and Focus, MaxProp, and PRoPHET on the impact of varying both buffer size and node density. We analyzed their energy consumption and compared their performance based on five performance metrics: average remaining energy, delivery ratio, average delay, transmission cost, and average hop count, respectively. Using ONE simulator, we performed a simulation with varying node density (while buffer size is fixed) and varying buffer size (while node density is fixed). From the outcomes of simulation, we found that Spray and Wait are the most energy-efficient DTN routing protocols. On the contrary, Spray and Focus possessed as the best performer in terms of average hop count, average delay, delivery ratio and transmission cost among conventional DTN routing protocols.

Keywords: Delay Tolerant Network, ONE Simulator, Buffer Size, Node Density, Routing Protocols, Energy-Efficiency


J. Wu, Y. Guo, H. Zhou, L. Shen, and L. Liu, "Vehicular Delay Tolerant Network Routing Algorithm Based on Bayesian Network," IEEE Access, vol. 8, pp. 18727-18740, 2020.

R. I. Ciobanu, C. Dobre and V. Cristea, "SPRINT: Social prediction-based opportunistic routing," 2013 IEEE 14th International Symposium on "A World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks" (WoWMoM), pp. 1-7, Madrid, 2013.

M. Musolesi and C. Mascolo, "CAR: Context-Aware Adaptive Routing for Delay-Tolerant Mobile Networks," IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 246-260, Feb. 2009.

C. C. Sobin, V. Raychoudhury, G. Marfia, and A. Singla, "A survey of routing and data dissemination in delay tolerant networks," Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 67, pp. 128-146, 2016.

Y. Cao and Z. Sun, "Routing in Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks: A Taxonomy, Survey and Challenges," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 654-677, 2013.

E. F. Silva, E. C. R. Oliveira, C. V. N. de Albuquerque and D. Muchaluat-Saade, "Context adaptation in delay and disruption tolerant networks," 2012 Global Information Infrastructure and Networking Symposium (GIIS), pp. 1-6, 2012.

K. Massri, A. Vitaletti, A. Vernata, and I. Chatzigiannakis, "Routing protocols for delay tolerant networks: a reference architecture and a thorough quantitative evaluation," Journal of Sensor and Actuator Networks, vol. 5, no. 2, 2016.

M. M. Qirtas, Y. Faheem, and M. H. Rehmani, "A cooperative mobile throwbox-based routing protocol for social-aware delay tolerant networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 26, pp. 1-13, 2020.

D. Vardalis, and V. Tsaoussidis, "Exploiting the potential of DTN for energy-efficient internetworking," Journal of Systems and Software, vol. 90, pp. 91-103, 2014.

M. Ababou, and M. Bellafkih, "Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Delay Tolerant Network Based on Fuzzy Logic and Ant Colony," International Journal of Intelligent Systems & Applications, vol. 10, no. 1, 2018.

A. Thakur, R. Sathiyanarayanan, and C. Hota, "STEEP: Speed and time-based energy efficient neighbor discovery in opportunistic networks," Wireless Networks, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 3275-3296, 2019.

M. A. Islam, R. U. Mondal and M. Z. Hasan, “Performance Evaluation of WiMAX Physical Layer under Adaptive Modulation Techniques and Communication Channels”, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 111-114, September 2009.

M. A. Islam and A.Z.M. Touhidul Islam, “Performance of WiMAX Physical Layer with Variations in Channel Coding and Digital Modulation Under Realistic Channel Conditions”, International Journal of Information Sciences and Techniques (IJIST), Vol. 2, pp. 39-47, No. 4, July 2012.

N. T. Aown, M. A. Islam, M. M. Rahman and A.Z.M. Touhidul Islam, “Effect of AWGN & Fading (Rayleigh & Rician) channels on BER performance of a WiMAX communication System”, International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security (IJCSIS), Vol. 10, No. 8, August 2012.

M. A. Halim, M. A. Islam, T. Islam, H. Homyara and M. Zaman, “Performance Analysis of Cyclic Redundancy Check(CRC) encoded Fixed WiMAX Wireless Communication System under Implementation of M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation(QAM) Technique”, International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA), Vol. 2, No. 5, pp. 1056-1062, 2012.

M. A. Islam and A. Z. M. Touhidul Islam, “Secure Wireless Text Message Transmission with the Implementation of RSA Cryptographic Algorithm”, International Journal of Computer Networks and Communications Security, VOL. 2, NO. 5, pp:146–151, May 2014.

M. A. Islam, D. Das, H. Homyara and A. Z. M. Touhidul Islam, "BER Performance of CRC Coded LTE System for Various Modulation Schemes and Channel Conditions", Scientific Research Journal (Scirj), Volume II, Issue V, pp: 6-10, May 2014.

M. A. Islam, M. M. Rahman, F. Enam and H. Homyara, “Analysis the Effect of Spectral Efficiency on Digitally Modulated OFDM Communication System over Realistic Channel Condition”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 1, pp: 1019-1024, January 2016.

M. P. Tai, M. A. Islam, F. Enam and M. A. Rahman, “Secure Color Image Transmission Over WIMAX Communication System”, Journal of Multidisciplinary Engineering Science and Technology (JMEST), Vol. 3 Issue 6, pp: 5040-5047, June 2016.

S. C. Roy, M. A. Islam, and M. S. Rahim. "A Study on the Performance of Delay-Tolerant Network Routing Protocols in the Campus Area of Rajshahi University, Bangladesh." In 2019 International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering (ECCE), pp. 1-6. IEEE, 2019.

A. Mehto, and M. Chawla, "Comparing delay tolerant network routing protocols for optimizing L-copies in spray and wait routing for minimum delay," Proceedings of the conference on advances in communication and control systems-2013, Atlantis Press, 2013.

E. A. A. Alaoui, S. Agoujil, M. Hajar, and Y. Qaraai, "The performance of DTN routing protocols: a comparative study," WSEAS Transactions on Communications, vol. 14, pp. 121-130, 2015.

M. K. M. Khan, and M. S. Rahim, "Performance analysis of social-aware routing protocols in delay tolerant networks, 2018 International Conference on Computer, Communication, Chemical, Material and Electronic Engineering (IC4ME2), pp. 1-4, Rajshahi, Bangladesh, 2018.

R. A. Cabacas, H. Nakamura, and In-Ho Ra, "Energy consumption analysis of delay tolerant network routing protocols," International Journal of Software Engineering and Its Applications, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 1-10.

E. A. A. Alaoui, H. Zekkori, and S. Agoujil, "Hybrid delay tolerant network routing protocol for heterogeneous networks," Journal of Network and Computer Applications, vol. 48, 2019.

M. Ababou, R. El Kouch, M. Bellafkih and N. Ababou, "Energy-efficient routing in Delay-Tolerant Networks," 2015 Third International Workshop on RFID and Adaptive Wireless Sensor Networks (RAWSN), pp. 1-5, 2015.

A. Socievole and S. Marano, "Evaluating the impact of energy consumption on routing performance in delay tolerant networks," 2012 8th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), pp. 481-486, Limassol, 2012.

B. B. Bista and D. B. Rawat, "Energy Consumption and Performance of Delay Tolerant Network Routing Protocols under Different Mobility Models," 2016 7th International Conference on Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation (ISMS), pp. 325-330, Bangkok, 2016.

Sujan Chandra Roy, Farhana Enam, and Md. Ashraful Islam, “Performance Evaluation of Social Routing Protocols Based on the E ffect of Delivery Ratio and Average Hop Count in Delay-tolerant Networks (DTN)”, European Journal of Engineering Research and Science (EJERS), Vol. 4, No. 12, December 2019. Belgium. Doi: 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.12.1696

S. Kumar, M. A. Islam, M. F. Ahmed and M. M. Rahman, “Effect of the Number of Messages on the Performance of Delay Tolerant Networks for Few Mobility Models”, American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER), Vol-7, Issue-3, pp:200-205, March 2018.

S. C. Roy, M. M. Ali and M. A. Islam, “Analysis the Effect of Transmission Cost on TTL and Number of Nodes in Social Aware Routing Protocols”, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Vol-10, Issue-9, Sep. 2019. doi: 10.14299/ijser.2019.09.06

T. Spyropoulos, K. Psounis and C. S. Raghavendra, "Spray and Focus: Efficient Mobility-Assisted Routing for Heterogeneous and Correlated Mobility," Fifth Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops (PerComW'07), pp. 79-85, White Plains, NY, 2007.

A. Keränen, J. Ott, and T. Kärkkäinen, "The ONE simulator for DTN protocol evaluation," Proceedings of the 2nd international conference on simulation tools and techniques, pp. 1-10, 2009.

Opportunistic Network Environment (ONE) simulator project page,, (Accessed: July 1, 2020.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Khan, M., Kawsaruzzaman, K., Rahman, M., Imtiaz, A.- and Imtiaz, A.- 2020. The Impact of Node Density and Buffer Size on DTN Routing Protocols with Energy Efficiency. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. 5, 9 (Sep. 2020), 1054-1061. DOI: