Estimation of Aquifer Protective Capacity, Soil Corrosivity and Dar-Zarrouk Parameters in Kaura Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria


  •   Isaac O. Olaniyan


This study presents an estimation of aquifer protective capacity, soil corrosivity and Dar-Zarrouk parameters for Kaura area of Kaduna State in northern Nigeria. Electrical resistivity sounding data and borehole pumping test data obtained from 20 locations within the LGA were obtained and used for this study. The geoelectric data exhibited curve types generally consisting of H, HA, KH or K-A-H types from which five-layer lithology were delineated across the entire study area. Well yield varies from 16 – 400 litres/min, pumping rate ranges from 16 to 140 l/min, drawdown varies from 1 – 22m, while specific capacity ranged from 1 – 95 litres/min. The aquifer protective capacity characterization was based on values of longitudinal unit conductance of the overburden, and 35% of the locations showed good protective capacity, while the remaining 65% exhibited moderate protective capacity. From the soil corrosivity evaluation, the upper soil layers were classified as moderately corrosive at one location, four locations were marked as slightly corrosive, while the remaining locations were found to be practically non-corrosive. Based on thicknesses and resistivities of the overburden layers, Dar-Zarrouk parameters were determined. The reflection coefficient ranged from 0.29 to 0.92, resistivity contrast occurred between 0.35 to 25.38, while the coefficient of anisotropy ranged from 0.70 to 3.84 with mean value of 1.57. Values above 1.0 are generally considered high and they occurred more toward the western part of the area than the middle and eastern parts. Both the longitudinal unit conductance map and coefficient of anisotropy map were generated for the area.

Keywords: Aquifer Protective Capacity, Coefficient of Anisotropy, Dar-Zarrouk Parameters, Soil Corrosivity, Longitudinal Conductance


D.K. Todd, Groundwater Hydrology. John Wiley and Sons Inc. New York, U.S.A. 1980 p.1-5, 15

R.A. Freeze and J.A. Cherry, Groundwater. Prentice-Hall Inc. New Jersey, U.S.A. 1979 p.2, 435-447

J.F. Ayers, “Conjunctive use of geophysical and geological methods in the study of alluvial aquifer,” Ground Water, 27(5): 625-632, 1989 doi:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1989.tb00475.x

L. Hamill and F.G. Bell, Groundwater Resource Development. Butterworths, London. 1986, Pp.119 – 128

P. McCurry, The geology of the precambrian to lower palaezoic rocks of northern Nigeria - A review. In: Kogbe C.A.(Ed) Geology of Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishers Co., Ibadan, Nigeria, 1976, pp 15-38.

M.A. Rahaman (1976). Review of the Basement geology of south-western Nigeria. In: Kogbe C.A. (Ed) Geology of Nigeria. Elizabethan Publishers Co., Ibadan, Nigeria. pp 41 – 56.

M.O. Oyawoye, The basement complex of Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie, T.F.J. and Whiteman, A.J. (Eds). African Geology. Ibadan University Press, 1979, Pp.67-99.

A.A. Elueze, Geology of the precambrian schist belt in Ilesha area, southwestern Nigeria. In: Precambrian Geology of Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria. 1988 pp. 77-82.

A.C. Ajibade, and W.R. Fitches, The Nigerian Precambrian and the Pan-African orogeny. In: Precambrian Geology of Nigeria. Geological Survey of Nigeria. 1988, pp. 45-53.

R.M. Carruthers, Review of geophysical techniques for groundwater exploration in crystalline basement terrain. British Geological Survey Report. No. RGRG85/3, 1984

M.J. Jones, The weathered zone aquifers of the basement complex area of Africa. Q. Journal of Eng. Geology 18:35-46, 1985

M.O. Eduvie and I.O. Olaniyan, Groundwater quality appraisal in southern parts of Kaduna State, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Engineering 3(1): 77-83 2013, DOI: 10.5923/j.ajee.20130301.11

A.U. Utom, B.I. Odoh and A.U. Okoro, Estimation of aquifer transmissivity Using Dar-Zarrouk parameters derived from surface resistivity measurements: A case history from parts of Enugu town (Nigeria). Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 4: 993-1000, 2012 doi:10.4236/jwarp.2012.412115

M.O. Eduvie and K.E. Omotayo, Determination of aquifer transmissivity using electrical resistivity method – An integrated approach of Fadan Karshi area of Kaduna State. Nigerian Journal of Water Resources 3(1): 55-68, 2017

M. Oladunjoye and S. Jekayinfa, Efficacy of Hummel (Modified Schlumberger) arrays of vertical electrical sounding in groundwater exploration: Case Study of Parts of Ibadan Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. Int. J. Geoph. 2015: 1- 24, 2015.

R. Barker., T.V. Rao and M. Thangarajan, Delineation of contaminant zone through electrical imaging technique. Curr. Sci. 81(3):277–283, 2001.

N.A. Omoyoloye, M.I. Oladapo and O.O. Adeoye, Engineering geophysical study of Adagbakuja Newtown development, southwestern Nigeria. J. Earth Sci. 2(2):55–63, 2008.

O. Abiola, P.A. Enikanselu and M.I. Oladapo, Groundwater potential and aquifer protective capacity of overburden units in Ado-Ekiti, southwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Physical Sciences, 4(3): 120-132, 2009

O.L. Ademilua and O.S. Ogungbemi, Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity of ground water resources within Afe Babalola University, Ado–Ekiti, southwestern Nigeria. Transnational Journal of Science and Technology, 3(6): 1 – 16 , 2013

D.N. Obiora, A.E. Ajala and J.C. Ibuot, Evaluation of aquifer protective capacity of overburden unit and soil corrosivity in Makurdi, Benue state, Nigeria, using electrical resistivity method J. Earth Syst. Sci. 124(1): 125–135 Indian Academy of Sciences, 2015

M.I. Oladapo and O.J. Akintorinwa, Hydrogeophysical study of Ogbese, southwestern Nigeria. Global J. Pure and Applied Sci. 13(1): 55-61, 2007.

M.I. Oladapo, M.Z. Mohammed, O.O. Adeoye and O.O. Adetola, Geoelectric investigation of the Ondo State Housing Corporation Estate; Ijapo, Akure, southwestern Nigeria; J. Mining Geol. 40(1): 41–48, 2004.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Olaniyan, I. 2020. Estimation of Aquifer Protective Capacity, Soil Corrosivity and Dar-Zarrouk Parameters in Kaura Area of Kaduna State, Nigeria. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 5, 10 (Oct. 2020), 1142-1151. DOI: