Guinea corn husk, a post-harvest agricultural waste common in Northern Nigeria is often heaped up constituting environmental nuisance. Guinea Corn Husk Ash (GCHA) is an incinerated by-product of it. In this experimental investigation, it was used to replace cement in concrete at levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% by weight. The sample cubes were casted and cured for 3, 14, 28 and 56 days before crushing. Before then, the chemical constituents of the GCHA were determined from an X-Ray diffraction analyzer. The oxides found in the ash included SiO2 (85.4%), K2O (4.01%), Fe2O3 (0.64%), CaO (2.04%) and NaO2 (0.98%). SO3 and AI2O3 were not detected. The combined percent of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 of 86.04% is above the 70% benchmark for a pozzolana material. Also, SO3 and NaO2 fell below the maximum allowable values of 4% and 1.5% respectively. The fresh concrete had slump values that ranged from 11mm for 0% cement replacement to 3.6mm for 40% replacement. The hard concrete had the highest compressive strength value of 23.67 N/mm2 for plain concrete and 49.3 N/mm2 at 5% GCHA replacement level. All were at 56 days of curing, satisfying quality for heavy load bearing. Beam samples cured for 3, 14, 28 and 56 days were subjected to flexural tests until they developed cracks. The cracks were measured for lengths (CRL) and width (CRW) for different replacement levels and curing days with a crack measuring microscope. The results show that, at 14days curing, there is a trend in the crack values’ reduction for the hardened GCHA concrete. This trend is also marginally seen for the 28 day cured samples, particularly at up to 20% replacement levels. The decrease in crack values were up to 17.2% and 2091% for CRL and CRW respectively. However, there were no significant crack controls with samples of higher replacement levels and those cured for 3 and 56 days. GCHA concrete can therefore be used to for heavy load bearing structures and for crack control at 5 – 20% replacement levels when cured for 14 days and 38 days.
E. E. Ndububa and N. Yakubu, “Effect of Guinea Corn Husk Ash as partial Replacement for Cement in Concrete,” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE), vol. XII, no. 2, pp. 40-45, 2015.
O. Folake Lucy and O. Atinuke Ifedayo, ‘‘Guinea corn (Sorghum Vulgare) leaf, a potential source of nutrients and phytochemicals” Food Public Health, Vol no.6, pp 228 – 230, 2012.
A. S. f. T. a. M. (ASTM), “Standard Test Methods for Sampling and Testing Fly Ash or Raw Natural Pozzolans for use in Portland-Cement Concrete C311/C311M,” ASTM International, West Conshohocken PA, 2016.
F. M. Lea, The Chemistry of Cement and Concrete, London: Edward Arnolds, 1970, pp. 358-398.
A. M. Neville, Properties of Concrete, Delhi: Pearson Education, 5th Ed. 2011, pp. 9-15.
S. A. Akinloye, G. M. Bankole and A. Medubi, “Effect of Lime-Guinea Corn Husk Ash on the Engineering Properties of Lateritic Soil,” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, vol. XIX, no. 6, pp. 17693-17699, 2014.
E. E. Ndububa, J. Okonkwo and O. I. Ndububa, “The Potential Use of Fonio Husk Ash as a Pozzolana in Concrete,” Nigerian Journal of Technology, vol. 35, no. 1, p. 31, 2015.
A. O. Ujene and E. Achuenu, “Comparative Assessment of Compressive Strength of Concrete containing Agricultural and Environmental Cementitious Wastes in Nigeria,” Nigerian Journal of Agriculture Food and Environment, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 37-42, 2013.
E. R. Bhushan, S. Goche, E. H. Singh and B. P. Bastola, “Partial Replacement of Cement by Rice Husk Ash,” International Research Journal of Engineering Technology, vol. IV, no. 10, pp. 251-256, 2017.
F. A. Olutoge and P. A. Adesina, “Effects of Rice Husk Ash Prepared from Charcoal-Powered Incinerator on the Strength and Durability Properties of Concrete,” Construction and Building Materials, vol. 196, pp. 386-394, 2019.
I. M. Mohd, E. A. Mohd, P. J. Ramadhansiyah, R. H. Mohd and H. W. Mohd, “Effect of Nano Silica on the Physical Property of Porous Concrete Pavement,” in International Research and Innovation Summit - IOP Science, Johor Malaysia, 2017.
H. Kim Rae et al., ‘’Evaluation of bond properties of Reinforced Concrete with corroded Reinforcement by uniaxial Tension Testing’’, Int. Journal of Concrete Structure and materials, vol. 10, no. 3, pp 43-52, 2016.
R. Siddique, “Utilization of Industrial by-products in Concrete”, 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials (SCESM), Vol.95, pp.335-347, 2014.
W.E. Station, ‘’The unified Soil Classification system’’, Tech. Rep. Arch. Image Libr., pp 1-28, 1977.
E. C. f. S. (CEN), “British Standard BS EN 196-2: Methods of Testing Cement Part 2 - Chemical Analysis of Cement,” British Standards Institution, London, 2010.
B. S. Institution, “BS EN 196-6 Methods of Testing Cement Part 6: Determination of Fineness,” British Standards Institution, London, 1992.
B. S. Institution, “British Standard Testing Concrete Part 102. Method for Determination of Slump,” British Standards Institution, London, 1983.
B. S. Institution, “BS EN 12390 Methods of Testing Hardened Concrete Part 3: Compressive Strength Test of Specimen,” British Standards Institution, London, 2009.
B. S. Institution, “British Standard Testing Concrete BS 1881 Part 107: Method of Determination of Density of Compacted Fresh Concrete,” British Standards Institute, London, 1983.
B. S. Institution, “BS 1881-114 Testing Concrete Part 114: Methods for Determination of Density of Hardened Concrete,” British Standards Institution, London, 1983.
B. S. Institution, ‘’BS EN 1992-1-1:2004 Euro code 2: Design of Concrete Structures- Part 1-1: General rules and rules for Buildings’. 3, pp 485, 2014.
B. S. Institution, ‘’BS 1881: Part 118: 1983, Method of determination of Flexural Strength,’’Br. Stand., vol.BS1881-118, no.1 ,1983.
“British Standard BS EN 196-6: Methods of Testing Cement Part 6 - Determination of Fineness,” British Standards Institution, London, 1992.
E. Güneyisi, M. Gesoglu, S. Karaoglu and K Mermerdas, “Strength, permeability and shrinkage cracking of silica fume and metakaolin concretes”, Construction and Building Materials. Vol. 34, pp.120-130, 2012.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.