Prediction of Formation Damage, Fluid Loss and Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud with Corn Cob


  •   Godwin Chukwuma Jacob Nmegbu

  •   Bright Bariakpoa Kinate

  •   Bari-Agara Bekee


The extent of damage to formation caused by water based drilling mud containing corn cob treated with sodium hydroxide to partially replace polyanionic cellulose (PAC) as a fluid loss control additive has been studied. Core samples were obtained from a well in Niger Delta for this study with a permeameter used to force the drilling mud into core samples at high pressures. Physio-chemical properties (moisture content, cellulose and lignin) of the samples were measured and the result after treatment showed reduction. The corn cob was combined with the PAC in the ratio of 25-75%, 50-50% and 75-25% in the mud. Analyzed drilling mud rheological properties such as plastic viscosity, apparent viscosity, yield point and gel strength all decreased as percentage of corn cob increased in the combination and steadily decreased as temperature increased to 200oF. Measured fluid loss and pH of the mud showed an increase in fluid loss and pH in mud sample with 100% corn cob. The extent of formation damage was determined by the differences in the initial and final permeability of the core samples. Experimental data were used to develop analytical models that can serve as effective tool to predict fluid loss, rheological properties of the drilling mud at temperature up to 200oF and percentage formation damage at 100 psi.

Keywords: corn cob, fluid loss,formation damage, modelwater based mud


Mahmoud, I. A. (2014). Formation Damage Caused by Oil-Well Drilling Fluids (1st Ed.) [e-book]. Retrieved from

Pål, S. (2012). Drilling Fluid Engineering (3rded.) [e-book].

Vidick, B. & Reid, P. (1997). Could formation damage minimization provide a cost effective integrated approach for the design of drilling cementing fluids?SPE, Asia Pacific Oil and Gas Conference, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Retrieved from

Lost Circulation. (2020). Schlumberger Oilfiled Glossary. Retrieved from

Dagde, K. K. &Nmegbu, C. J. (2014). Drilling fluid formulation using cellulose generated from groundnut husk, International Journal of Advancement in Research and Technology, 3, 6, 2278-7763.

Onuh, C. Y., Igwilo, K. C., Anawe, P. A., Daramola, O. &Ogunwomoju, O. (2017). Environmentally friendly fluid loss control agent in water-based mudfor oil and gas drilling operations, International Journal of Applied Enginerring, 12 (8) 1520-1523.

Al-Taq. A., Basin, B. & Ding, P. E. (2005). Mud-Induced Formation Damage in Carbonate Reservoirs: Consequences on Productivity of Open-Hole Horizontal Wells, SPE European Formation Damage Conference, Scheveningen, Netherland.

Navarrete, R. C., Dearing, H. L., Constein, V. G., Marsaglia, K. M., Scheult, J. M. & Rodgers, P. E. (2000). Experiments in fluid loss and Formation Damage with Xanthan-Based fluid while Drilling,IADC/SPE Asia Pacific Drilling Technology, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Doi:10.2118/62732-MS.

Viskas, M., Shrikanth, P. & Krishna, B. V. (2013). Development of Non—Damaging Inhibitive Water Based Oil Well Drilling Fluids, Petroleum Science and Technology, 31(7), 721-726.

Abdul, R. I., Ng, Y. S. &Khor, S. F. (2017). Analysis of permeability reduction due to drilling fluid systems. International Conference on Advances in Strategic Technologies, Putrajaya, Malaysia. Retrieved from

Omar, M., Hisham, A. N., Zisis, V.&Vssilios C. K. (2016). Nanoparticles-based drilling fluids for minimizing formation damage in HP/HT applications. SPE international conference and exhibition on formation damage control, Lafayette, Louisiana. Retrieved from

Hosein, R., Maharaj, V. & Clyde, A. (2014). An Experimental Investigation of Formation Damage Caused by Commonly used Water-Based Drilling-Mud Onshore Trinidad, The West Indian Journal of Engineering, 36, 2, 4-11. Retrieved from

Iscan, A. G., Kok, M. V. &Bagci, A. S. (2007). Permeability reduction due to formation damage by drilling fluids, Energy Sources, 29, 9, 851-859.

Tianbo, L., Fuyang, G., Erdong, Y., Lufeng, Z., Kai, Y., Guohua, L. & Fujian, Z. (2017). Formation Damage Due to Drilling and Fracturing Fluids and Its Solution for Tight Naturally Fractured Sandstone Reservoirs, Geofluids, 1-9,

Alicia, A. M. & Sue, E. N. (2014). Effects of Sodium Hydroxide Pretreatments on Structural Components of Biomass, Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering Publications, 57 (4), 1187-1198.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Nmegbu, G.C.J., Kinate, B.B. and Bekee, B.-A. 2020. Prediction of Formation Damage, Fluid Loss and Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud with Corn Cob. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 5, 10 (Oct. 2020), 1269-1273. DOI: