Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Present in Fresh Leafy & Salad Vegetables in Dhaka, Bangladesh


  •   Shahrin Akter Aurin

  •   Sohana Parvin Chowdhury

  •   Maruf Abony

  •   Jarin Rifa

  •   Avijit Banik

  •   Aneeka Nawar Fatema

  •   Oshin Ghurnee

  •   Zakaria Ahmed


This study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of fresh raw and unwashed leafy and salad vegetables in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Six different types of samples (red amaranth, spinach, carrot, radish, tomato, and cucumber) were collected in pre-sterilized zip-lock bags from various local markets in Dhaka. All samples were transported to the Centre of Excellence for Global Health Research Laboratory of Primeasia University at earliest convenience. Samples were enriched in Nutrient Broth media and were then cultured on selective media for isolation purpose. Serial dilution was performed for the total viable count. Biochemical and carbohydrate profiling was conducted for the presumptive identification of the isolates. Commercial antibiotic discs were used for antibiogram by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar medium. The total microbial load ranged from 8x107 to 1.70x108. Total 36 isolates were identified, having 7 differentorganisms. The most predominant organism was Vibrio sp. (23%) followed by Klebsiella sp.(20%), Acinetobacter sp. (19%), Pseudomonas sp. (19%), Salmonella sp. (8%), Moraxella sp.(8%) and Escherichia coli (3%). 11% of the Vibrio sp. isolates were V. cholerae, found from 4 samples. No presence of V. cholerae was observed in the tomatosamples. E. coli was observed only in Carrot sample. Antibiotics from 7 different groups were tested against the organisms among which Imipenem showed the highest sensitivity (86%). Following Ceftriaxone (100%), Nitrofurantoin (94%), Erythromycin (89%) and Amoxicillin (83%) had the highest resistance against the isolated organisms. Moreover, most of the isolates showed a multi-drug resistance pattern where they were resistant to at least four drugs. Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in raw unwashed vegetables can cause potential adverse health effects and therefore the consumers need to be conscious about the matter.

Keywords: Fresh raw vegetables, Food-borne illness, Gram-negative bacteria, Multi-drug resistance


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How to Cite
Aurin, S.A., Chowdhury, S.P., Abony, M., Rifa, J., Banik, A., Fatema, A.N., Ghurnee, O. and Ahmed, Z. 2020. Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Present in Fresh Leafy & Salad Vegetables in Dhaka, Bangladesh. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 5, 11 (Nov. 2020), 1322-1327. DOI: