# Dynamic Analysis of Encastre Beams by Modification of the System’s Stiffness Distribution

## Abstract

Numerical and energy methods are used to dynamically analyze beams and complex structures. Hamilton’s principle gives exact results but cannot be easily applied in frames and complex structures. Lagrange’s equations can easily be applied in complex structures by lumping the continuous masses at selected nodes. However, this would alter the mass distribution of the system, thus introducing errors in the results of the dynamic analysis. This error can be corrected by making a corresponding modification in the systems’ stiffness matrix. This was achieved by simulating a beam with uniformly distributed mass with the force equilibrium equations. The lumped mass structures were simulated with the equations of motion. The continuous systems were analyzed using the Hamilton’s principle and the vector of nodal forces {P} causing vibration obtained. The nodal forces and displacements were then substituted into the equations of motion to obtain the modified stiffness values as functions of a set of stiffness modification factors. When the stiffness distribution of the system was modified by means of these stiffness modification factors, it was possible to predict accurately the natural fundamental frequencies of the lumped mass encastre beam irrespective of the position or number of lumped masses.

Keywords: Lagrange’s equations; mass lumping; encastre beam; natural frequency; stiffness matrix, finite element analysis.

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