Regolith derived from Nanka Formation; Southeast Nigeria was evaluated for their geotechnical characteristics. The methods of investigations include Fieldwork experiment and laboratory analysis of water and soil samples. The result of hydraulic parameters of the soil at 1meter, 2 meters depth and drilled cuttings from boreholes revealed permeability average values of 1.29E-05(cm/s) and 9.15E-6(cm/s), hydraulic conductivity average value of 1.27E-04(cm/s) and 8.93E-05(cm/s). Drilled cuttings from three boreholes revealed permeability average value of 8.15E-06(m/s), 2.68E-06(m/s) and 6.20E-06, hydraulic conductivity average values of 8.90E-03(m/s), 2.92E-03(m/s) and 6.75E-3(m/s).These values indicate permeable soil with high hydraulic conductivity typical of silty-clay and sand. The permeability/hydraulic conductivity accounts for the high infiltration/percolation of water into the soil. Infiltration of water through the soil initiates geochemical reactions and dissolution mineral which leaves the soil loose and unconsolidated. Geotechnical characteristics show low to medium plasticity and a liquid limit average of 42.36 and 35.45, indicating the capacity of the soil to absorb moisture and expand, bulk density average value of 1.90 mg/m3and compaction test of maximum dry density average value of 1.80 g/cm3 at an optimum water content average of 12.89% indicate low density. Shear strength components of cohesion values range from 0 to 55KN/m2 with average value of 25 KN/m2 and friction angle values range from 7° to 25° suggesting low cohesion and angle of internal friction. This is attributed to the low clay content and the cohesive force is not enough to sustain the soil. Field experiments of cone penetration test of in-situ results indicate a weak and incompetent soil material that is unstable and vulnerable to erosion. The finding would be relevant in soil mechanics problems.
S. P. Anderson, F. Blanckenburg, and A. F. White, “Physical and chemical controls on the critical zone”. Elements vol. 3, pp. 315-319, Oct. 2007.
S. L. Brantley, and A. F White, “Approaches to modeling weathered regolith” Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochem. vol.70, pp. 435-484, Dec. 2009.
J. Braun, J. Mercier, F. Guilocheau, and C. Robin, “A simple model for regolith formation by chemical weathering,” Geophys. Res. Earth Surf, vol. 121, pp. 2140 – 2171, Oct. 2016.
C.R.M. Butt, L. Melvyn, and R.R Anand, “Evolution of regoliths and landscapes in deeply weathered terrain – implications for geochemical exploration” Ore Geology. vol. 16, (3-4) pp. 167-183, June 2000.
R.J. Chorley, “The role of water in rock disintegration,” in introduction to Fluvial Processes. Ed R.J. Chorley, Great Britain, ch. 3. ll, pp. 63-73. 1977.
E. Dahms, and L Fritz. “Reference Values for Consistency Limits of Cohesive Soils: Mechanical Properties of Clays and Clay Minerals” in Developments in Clay Science. F. Bergaya, B.K.G. Theng and G. Lagaly, Ed. 2006, Cambridge University Press,2018, ch. 9, pp 351.
l. A Douglas, Humid landforms, lntroduction to Systematic Geomorphology. National University Press, Australia, 1977, pp193-196.
J.C. Dixion, o.a. Chadwick, P.M. Vitousek, “Chemical-driven thresholds for chemical weathering in postglacial soils of New Zealand,” Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, vol. 121, 1619-1634, Sep. 2016.
B.C.E. Egboka, and E.I. Okpoko, “Gully erosion in the Agulu-Nanka region of Anambra State, Nigeria,” Challenges in African Hydrology and Water Resources, Proceedings of the Harare Symposium, IAHS Pub, vol. 144, July 1984.
P. Hudec, F. Simpson, E. Akpokodje, and M, Umenweke, “Termination of gully processes, southeastern Nigeria,” in Proc. 2006 8th FIS Conf. 2006, pp 671-679.
E. Joussein,” Nanosized tabular clay minerals” in Development in Clay Science, 1st ed. vol. 7, P. Yuan, Ed, Orlean, France, 2016, pp. 12.
K. Kauranne, R. Salminen, and K. Ericksson, Regolith exploration geochemistry in artic, temperate terrains, 1st ed. vol, 5, G.J.S. Govett, Ed. Elseiver Netherlands, 1992, ch. 12, pp 363-398.
Kalve, S.D and Gurpal, “The Composition of Soils and Sediments,” In Green Chemistry, An inclusive Approach. B. Torok, T. Dransfield, Ed. Elseiver Amsterdam, 2018, ch. 3.9 pp339-357,
W.C. Krumbein, and G.D. Monk, “Permeability as a function of size parameters of unconsolidated sand,” Trans. AIME vol. 151, (1) pp153-163, Dec. 1943.
N.P. iloeje, A New Geography of Nigeria, new revised edition. Longman Nig. Ltd., Lagos, Nigeria, June, 1981, pp 201.
P. E. B. Inyang, Climatic Conditions in Nigeria in Maps, Eastern States Ed. By Ofomata GEK Ethiope Publishers, Benin, 1975, pp 27-29.
J.J. Middleburg, C.H. Van det Weijden, and J.R.W Woiltiez, “Chemical processes affecting the mobility of major, minor and trace elements during weathering of granitic rock,” Chemical Geology, vol. 68 (3-4), pp253-273, Jan. 1988.
B.M. Moskowitz, M. Jackson, and V. Chandler, “Geophysical properties of near-surface earth: magnetic properties earth,” in Treaties on Geophysics, 2nd ed, vol, 11, G. Schubert, Ed. Oxford Canada, 2015, pp 43-87.
H.W. Nesbitt, G. Markovics, and R.C. Price, “Chemical processes affecting alkalis and alkaline earths during continental weathering,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 44, 1659-1666, Nov. 1980.
C.S. Nwajide, Geology of Nigeria’s Sedimentary Basins, 1st ed. CSS Bookshops, Ltd, Lagos, Nigeria, 2013, ch.11, pp 381-392.
C.A. O’Flaherty, “Highway Engineering,” in Article A. Edward Ed. London, UK. vol. 2, 1988.
E.I. Okoyeh, A.E. Akpan, B.C.E Egboka, and H.I. Okeke, “An assessment of the influences of surface and subsurface water level dynamics in the development of gullies in Anambra State, Southeastern, Nigeria” Earth Interactions, vol.18, pp 1- 24, Feb. 2014.
K.R. “Olson, Factors of Soil Formation parent material,” in Encyclopedia of soils in the environment, 2005, pp 532-535
C.F. Pain, and C.D. Ollier, “Regolith stratigraphy: principles and problems,” AGSO. Australian Geology and Geophysics. vol. 16(3) 197- 202, 1996.
G. Ranjan, and A.S.R. Rao, Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics, New Age International Publishers Limited. New Delhi. 2005, ch 2. pp 40.
R.J. Schaetzl and S. Anderson, “Soils: genesis and geomorphology,” Cambridge University Press, NY. U.S.A, 2005, ch 2. pp.32-52
B.W. Stewart, R.C. Capo, and O.A. Chadwick, “Effect of rainfall on weathering rate, base cation provennance, and Sr Isotope Composition of Hawaiian Soils,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 65, 7, pp 1087-1099, April 2001.
M. j. Singer, “Basic principles of pedology,” in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2015. in press.
B.F. Turner, R.F. Stallard, and S. L. Brantley, “Investigation of in-situ weathering of quart diorite bedrock in Rio lcacos basin, luquillo experiment forest. Puerto Rico,” Chemical Geology, vol. 202, pp 313-341, Dec. 2003.
M. Vazquez, S. Ramirez, D. Morata, M. Reich, J.J Brauun, and S. Carretier “Regolith production and chemical weathering of grantic rocks in Central Chile. Chemical Geology 446, pp 87-98, Sep. 2016.
Vukovic. M., .and Soro, A. Determination of Hyraulic Conductivity of Porous Media from Grainsize Composition. Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colorado. USA, 1992, ch 2, pp 30.
White, A.T., Blum, A.E., Schulz, M.S., Vivit, D.V., Stonestorm, D.A., Larsen, M., Murphy S.F., and Eberl, D. Chemical Weathering in a Tropical Watershed, Iuquilo Mountains Puerto Rio. Geochimica et Cosmochimica, Acta 62, vol. 2, pp 209-226, Sep.1998.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.
Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.