“Clavis Aurea”: An augmented Reality Game for the Teaching of Local History


  •   George Koutromanos

  •   Theodora Pittara

  •   Christopher Tripoulas


The aim of this study was the design, development, and evaluation of an Augmented Reality game to teach students about the local history of a Greek island. Design-based research served as the foundation of this study’s methodology. Experts in ICT in education, teachers with knowledge of the local history and primary education students participated in the evaluation of this study. The results of the evaluation showed that the game presents satisfactory levels of usability and that its content is compatible with the island’s local history. Among the factors influencing its use by students were internet connectivity, the large number of visitors at the archaeological site where the game was played, and the problem of coordinating the student groups.

Keywords: Augmented Reality Games, Evaluation, History, Primary Education


K. C. Barton, and L. S. Levstik, Teaching history for the common good, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004.

S. Foster, “Using historical empathy to excite students about the study of history: Can you empathize with Neville Chamberlain?” The Social Studies, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 18–24, Jan. 1999.

N. A. M. Zin, and W. S. Yue, “Design and evaluation of history digital game based learning (DGBL) software,” Journal of Next Generation Information Technology, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 9–24, June 2013.

N. Dulberg, “The Theory Behind How Students Learn: Applying Developmental Theory to Research on Children's Historical Thinking,” Theory & Research in Social Education, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 508–531, Sep. 2005.

K. Schrier, “Designing digital games to teach history,” in Learning and education games volume one: Curricular and design considerations, K. Schrier, Ed. Pittsburgh, PA: ETC Press, 2014, pp. 73–92.

J. Stoddard, “Toward a virtual field trip model for the social studies,” Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 412–438, Dec. 2009.

M. Behrendt, and T. Franklin, “A review of research on school field trips and their value in education,” International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 235–245, Jan. 2014.

M. M. Schaper, M. Santos, L. Malinverni, J. Z. Berro, and N. Pares, “Learning about the past through situatedness, embodied exploration and digital augmentation of cultural heritage sites,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 114, pp. 36–50, June 2018.

X. Wei, D. Weng, Y. Liu, and Y. Wang, “A tour guiding system of historical relics based on augmented reality,” in 2016 IEEE Virtual Reality (VR), IEEE, 2016, pp. 307–308.

P. Galatis, D. Gavalas, V. Kasapakis, G. E. Pantziou, and C. D. Zaroliagis, “Mobile Augmented Reality Guides in Cultural Heritage,” Proc. of the 8th EAI International Conference on Mobile Computing, Applications and Services, Cambridge, Great Britain, 2016, pp. 11–19.

F. Arici, P. Yildirim, Ş. Caliklar, and R. M. Yilmaz, “Research trends in the use of augmented reality in science education: Content and bibliometric mapping analysis,” Computers & Education, vol. 142, pp. 103647, Dec. 2019.

J. Garzón, and J. Acevedo, “A Meta-analysis of the impact of Augmented Reality on students’ learning effectiveness,” Educational Research Review, vol. 27, pp. 244–260, June 2019.

J. Garzón, S. Baldiris, J. Gutiérrez, and J. Pavón, “How do pedagogical approaches affect the impact of augmented reality on education? A meta-analysis and research synthesis,” Educational Research Review, vol. 31, pp. 100334, May 2020.

M. B. Ibáñez, and C. Delgado-Kloos, “Augmented reality for STEM learning: A systematic review,” Computers & Education, vol. 123, pp. 109–123, Aug. 2018.

M. B. Ibáñez, A. U. Portillo, R. Z. Cabada, and M. L. Barrón, “Impact of augmented reality technology on academic achievement and motivation of students from public and private Mexican schools. A case study in a middle-school geometry course,” Computers & Education, vol. 145, pp. 103734, Feb. 2020.

G. Koutromanos, A. Sofos, and L. Avraamidou, “The use of Augmented Reality Games in Education: A review of the literature,” Educational Media International Journal, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 253–271, Oct. 2015.

I. Malegiannaki, & Τ. Daradoumis, “Analyzing the educational design, use and effect of spatial games for cultural heritage: A literature review,” Computers & education, vol. 108, pp. 1–10, May 2017.

G. Koutromanos, and G. Styliaras, “The Buildings speak about our city: A location based augmented reality game,” in Information, Intelligence, Systems and Applications (IISA), 2015 6th International Conference, Corfu, Greece, 2015, pp. 1–6.

K. Squire, and M. Jan, “Mad city mystery: Developing scientific argumentation skills with a place-based augmented reality game on handheld computers,” Journal of Science Education and Technology, vol. 16, pp. 5–29, Feb. 2007.

M. Mokhsin, A. S. Zainol, E. N. M. Ibrahim, M. H. M., Som, K. A. A. Basit, and A. A. Azman, “ARMyPat: Mobile Application in Learning Malay Historical Patriots Using Augmented Reality,” in Intelligent and Interactive Computing, Singapore: Springer, 2019, pp. 425–445

O. Shabalina, G. Timofeev, A. Davtian, M. Zheltukhina, and D. Moffat, “Investigating Regional Heritage Through the Development and Playing of AR Games,” in European Conference on Games Based Learning, Academic Conferences International Limited, 2019, pp. 631–XXII.

N. H. M. Azhar, N. M. Diah, S. Ahmad, and M. Ismail, “Development of augmented reality to learn history,” Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1425–1432, Dec. 2019.

C. Ardito, P. Buono, M. F. Costabile, R. Lanzilotti, and T. Pederson, “Re-experiencing history in archaeological parks by playing a mobile augmented reality game,” in OTM Confederated International Conferences "On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems", Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007, pp. 357–366.

B. Y. Chan, and Z. I. B. A. Ismail, “Augmented reality mobile application: enhancing visitor experience in Labuan Museum,” International Journal of Advanced Research in Technology and Innovation, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 40–49, Oct. 2019.

J. Huizenga, W. Admiraal, S. Akkerman, and G. ten Dam, “Mobile game-based learning in secondary education: Engagement, motivation and learning in a mobile city game,” Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 25, pp. 332–344, Aug. 2009.

D. La Guardia, M. Arrigo, and O Di Giuseppe, “A location-based serious game to learn about the culture,” in Proc. of the 2nd international conference on the future of education, 2012, pp. 508–512.

T. Ekonomou, & S. Vosinakis, “Mobile augmented reality games as an engaging tool for cultural heritage dissemination: A case study,” Scientific Culture, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 97–107, May 2018.

J. Z. Low, A. Kamaruddin, & M. D. Hamzah, “Mobile Augmented Reality Application for High School History Subject (SejarAR)”. Available: https://chiuxid.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/SIGCHI_ext_abs_SejarAR-.pdf (2019).

S. Trista, and A. Rusli, “HistoriAR: Experience Indonesian history through interactive game and augmented reality,” Bulletin of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1518–1524, Aug. 2020.

O. Gottlieb, “Time travel, labour history, and the null curriculum: new design knowledge for mobile augmented reality history games,” International Journal of Heritage Studies, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 287–299, Mar. 2018.

K. Schrier, “Using augmented reality games to teach 21st century skills,” in ACM SIGGRAPH 2006 Educators program, 2006, pp. 15–es.

E. Klopfer, and K. Squire, “Environmental Detectives - the development of an augmented reality platform for environmental simulations,” Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 203–228, Apr. 2008.

B. Schmitz, R. Klemke, J. Walhout, and M. Specht, “Attuning a mobile simulation game for school children using a design-based research approach,” Computers & Education, vol. 81, pp. 35–48, Feb. 2015.

H. Sollervall, “Collaborative mathematical inquiry with augmented reality,” Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 153–173, Nov. 2012.

M. Dunleavy, “Design principles for augmented reality learning,” TechTrends, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 28–34, Jan. 2014.

R. C. Clark, and R. E. Mayer, “Learning by viewing versus learning by doing: Evidence‐based guidelines for principled learning environments,” Performance Improvement, vol. 47, no. 9, pp. 5–13, Oct. 2008.

Nielsen, J., “Heuristic evaluation,” in Usability Inspection Methods, J. Nielsen, and R. L. Mack, Eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

W. Admiraal, J. Huizenga, S. Akkerman, and G. Ten Dam, “The concept of flow in collaborative game-based learning,” Computers in Human Behavior, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 1185–1194, May 2011.

C. L. Jakobsen, J. B. Larsen, M. L. Nørlem, and M. Kraus, “Improving user experience for lost heritage sites with a user-centered indirect augmented reality application,” in Interactivity, Game Creation, Design, Learning, and Innovation, Springer, Cham, 2017, pp. 54–63.

C. Sintoris, N. Yiannoutsou, and N. Avouris, “The fortress of Monemvasia as playground for a location based game,” Proc. of Playing with History 2016 DiGRA/FDG Workshop on Playing with History: Games, antiguity and history, Dundee, Scotland, UK. Available: shorturl.at/ltPVX (2016).

I. Efstathiou, E. A. Kyza, and Y. Georgiou, “An inquiry-based augmented reality mobile learning approach to fostering primary school students’ historical reasoning in non-formal settings,” Interactive Learning Environments, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 22–41, Jan. 2018.

J. Joo-Nagata, F. M. Abad, J. G. B. Giner, and F. J. García-Peñalvo, “Augmented reality and pedestrian navigation through its implementation in m-learning and e-learning: Evaluation of an educational program in Chile,” Computers & Education, vol. 111, pp. 1–17, Aug. 2017.

N. Westergard-Nielsen, “Culture and nature moving-learn with the mobile phone,” in eChallenges, 2010, IEEE, 2010, pp. 1–7.

N. Pellas, P. Fotaris, I. Kazanidis, and D. Wells, “Augmenting the learning experience in primary and secondary school education: A systematic review of recent trends in augmented reality game-based learning,” Virtual Reality, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 329–346, Dec. 2019.

H. Tobar-Muñoz, S. Baldiris, and R. Fabregat, “Augmented reality game-based learning: enriching students’ experience during reading comprehension activities,” Journal of Educational Computing Research, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 901–936, Dec. 2017.

I. Boididis, F. Lazarinis, V. S. Verykios, and C. Panagiotakopoulos, “Exploring cultural heritage landscapes in an interactive game-based learning application,” in 2015 International Conference on Interactive Mobile Communication Technologies and Learning (IMCL), IEEE, 2015, pp. 59–62.

D. Rammos, and T. Bratitsis, “Alternative Teaching of History Subject in Primary School: The Case of the 3D HIT Playful Activity,” in International Conference on Games and Learning Alliance, Springer, Cham, 2019, pp. 457–467.


Download data is not yet available.


How to Cite
Koutromanos, G., Pittara, T. and Tripoulas, C. 2020. “Clavis Aurea”: An augmented Reality Game for the Teaching of Local History. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. CIE (Dec. 2020). DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2020.0.CIE.2310.