Introduction to Breast Carcinogenesis – Symptoms, Risks factors, Treatment and Management


  •   Ebosetale Blessing Ikhuoria

  •   Christian Bach


This paper aims to review current research and advancement in prevention and management of breast cancer. Occurrence of breast cancer has increased globally in the last decade. It been recorded that 15% of cancer-specific breast cancer. It is a comprehensive literature review on Breast cancer and its dependent variables created a theoretical foundation of the paper. Using the review-centric theory, a model was developed and presented to encapsulate the knowledge of the benefits associated with exercise on breast cancer outcomes through adiposity and immunological mechanisms. The model highlights breast cancer and its relationship with immunological biomarkers, obesity-related biomarkers, exercise or physical activity, biomarkers for adiposity. However more research is needed to understand the use of low doses of radiation inadequate screening, sometimes a screening test may not be able to show with certainty that there is no cancer, or occasionally may miss breast cancer. Overtreatment, some breast cancers that are found by mammography would never become a health problem in the woman’s lifetime. False negatives, other test results miss breast cancer. This shows how signs and symptoms of breast cancer, causes ad risks factors associated with breast cancer, treatment of breast cancer and the management of breast cancer malignancy can help in the decreased of mortality rate in woman and men who has and are likely to test malignancy to breast cancer disease.

Keywords: Breast Cancer, Signs and symptoms, Breast Pain, Surgery, Treatment, Therapy, Endocrine Therapy, Nipple Retraction, Lump, Chemotherapy, H90 inhibitors, Genetic Mutation, Malignancy, Body mass, Medication usage


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How to Cite
Ikhuoria, E. and Bach, C. 2018. Introduction to Breast Carcinogenesis – Symptoms, Risks factors, Treatment and Management. European Journal of Engineering Research and Science. 3, 7 (Jul. 2018), 58-66. DOI: