Towards Sustainable Composite Building Material: Integrating Lime with Slag for reduced mortar Thermal Conductivity

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Sule Adeniyi Olaniyan

Abstract

Lime Based Mortar became very popular due to its outstanding features of flexibility, permeability and low carbon emissions. However, lime’s characteristic delayed setting, late hardening time, low mechanical strength, among others, overshadowed significance of its outstanding features, thereby putting its overall use into decline, particularly, with the 19th century Portland Cement discovery. This study therefore aims at reviving lime usage through a sustainable lime composite, by integrating an industrial by-product, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (slag) with lime, in form of lime-slag mortar, with a view to reducing the mortar thermal conductivity. The methodology involved mortars with the same Binder/Aggregate (B/A) mix ratio (1:3) using five separate volumetric compositions of ‘slag-lime’ binders (i.e. 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1). Physical properties of the mortars involving their Water/Binder (W/B) ratios, Air Contents and Bulk Densities were recorded. Comparative evaluations of the compositions in hardened state, involving thermal conductivities were carried out at specific intervals through a twelve-month curing period. These were partly monitored through assessments of the composites’ microstructural behaviours over a six-month period. Results of the investigation show that addition of slag to mortars facilitate slightly larger pores with increased porosities. However, these effects are minimal (i.e. from 23.42% to 25.37% porosity) when slag content is at equal volumetric content with lime. A general reduction (not in a linear trend) in the thermal conductivities of the mortar with increasing slag content was observed, cumulating in 25% decrease in the composites having thrice volumetric content of slag, relative to lime. Composite’s reduced thermal conductivity would be of utmost importance in construction especially, where material’s limited thermal conductivity property is of utmost importance.


Keywords: Carbon emissions, Climate Change, E-value, Flexibility, Lime, Mortars, Thermal Conductivity

References

D. Ciancio, C. T. S. Beckett, and J. A. H. Carraro, “Optimum lime content identification for lime-stabilised rammed earth,” Construction and Building Materials, 53, pp. 59-65, 2014.

S. A. Olaniyan, “Sustainable Lime Based Mortars: Performance Assessment of Composites for Building Construction,” PhD Thesis, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland, 2017.

A. Hussain, and K. Kamal, “Energy Efficient Sustainable Building Materials: An Overview,” Key Engineering Materials, 650, pp. 38–50, 2015.

D. M. Roodman, and N. Lenssen, “A Building Revolution: How Ecology and Health Concerns are Transforming Construction,” Worldwatch Paper 124, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C., 1995, p. 5.

De Lieto Vollaro Roberto, M. Calvesi, G. Battista, L. Evangelisti, P. Gori, and C. Guattari, “A new method of technical analysis to optimise the design of low impact energy systems for buildings,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology Innovation, 3(4), pp. 241-250, 2013.

N. Fumo, “A review on the basics of building energy estimation,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 31, pp. 53-60, 2014.

S. A. Olaniyan, and A.J. Klemm, “Current trends in development of lime based composites,” Building Physics in Theory and Practice, VII (3), pp. 49-54, 2015.

V. S. K. V. Harish, and A. Kumar, “A review on modeling and simulation of building energy systems,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 56, pp. 1272-1292, 2016.

A. J. Klemm, and K. S. Sikora, “The effect of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) on microstructure and mechanical properties of fly ash cementitious mortars”, Construction and Building Materials, 49, pp. 134-143, 2013.

D. B. Goldstein, and C. Eley, “A classification of building energy performance indices”, Energy Efficiency, 7(2), pp. 353-375, 2014.

S. Yaguang, (July 2018) “Research on New Technology of Energy Efficient Buildings and Utilization of Renewable Energy Sources” in Green Building Technologies and Materials - 19.2 New Trend of Energy Efficiency Technology, Wu Xie, Ed. Trans Tech Publications Ltd. Available: https://app.knovel.com/hotlink/pdf/id:kt009EW6J1/green-building-technologies/new-trend-energy-efficiency

J. Lanas, J. L. Pérez Bernal, M. A. Bello, and J. I. Alvarez Galindo, “Mechanical properties of natural hydraulic lime-based mortars,” Cement and Concrete Research, 34(12), 2191–2201, 2004.

M. Arandigoyen, and J. I. Alvarez, “Pore structure and mechanical properties of cement–lime mortars,” Cement and Concrete Research, 37(5), 767-775, 2007.

J. Hughes, J. E. Lindqvist, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, and RISE RILEM TC 203-RHM, “Repair mortars for historic masonry: The role of mortar in masonry: An introduction to requirements for the design of repair mortars,” Materials and Structures, 45(9), 1287-1294, 2012.

P. F. G. Banfill, “Rheological methods for assessing the flow properties of mortar and related materials,” Construction and Building Materials, 8(1), 43-50, 1994.

L. Mcdonald, “Hydraulic lime mortar for the house of the future,” The Structural Engineer, 78 (7), 2000.

A. M. Forster, “An assessment of the relationship between the water vapour permeability and hydraulicity of lime based mortars with particular reference to building conservation materials science,” PhD Thesis, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, 2002.

A. Solak, “Experimental investigation of lime mortar used in historical buildings in becin, turkey,” Materials Science, 22(1), 105-112, 2016.

Edwards A.J. (2005) Properties of Hydraulic and Non-Hydraulic Limes for Use in Construction. PhD Thesis, Napier University, Edinburgh.

R. J. Ball, A. El-Turki, W. J. Allen, J. A. Nicholson, and G. C. Allen, “Deformation of NHL3.5 and CL90/PC hybrid mortars. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers” Construction Materials, 162(1), 29-35, 2009.

J. J. Hughes, and J. Valek, “Mortars in Historic Buildings: A Review of the Conservation, Technical and Scientific Literature,” Historic Scotland, & Historic Scotland, Technical Conservation, Research and Education Division. Edinburgh: Historic Scotland, 2003.

S. A. Olaniyan, A. J. Klemm, and F. C. Almeida, “Evolving Low Carbon Sustainable Building Material: Making Case for Cement-Lime Composites,” 9th International Concrete Conference on Environment, Efficiency and Economic Challenges for Concrete, Dundee, 2016.

F. Pacheco-Torgal, J. Castro-Gomes, and S. Jalali, “Alkali-Activated Binders: A review: Part 1. Historical Background, Terminology, reaction mechanisms and hydration products,” Construction and Building Materials, 22(7), 1305, 2008.

A. Izaguirre, J. Lanas, and J. I. Alvarez, “Effect of a polypropylene fibre on the behaviour of aerial lime-based mortars,” Construction and Building Materials, 25(2), 992-1000, 2011.

A. M. Forster, and K. Carter, “A framework for specifying natural hydraulic lime mortars for masonry construction,” Structural Survey, 29(5), 373-396, 2011.

L. Ventola, M. Vendrell, and P. Giraldez, “Newly-designed traditional lime mortar with a phase change material as an additive,” Construction and Building Materials, 47, 1210-1216, 2013.

B. Das, S. Prakash, P. S. R. Reddy, and V. N. Misra, “An overview of utilization of slag and sludge from steel industries,” Resources Conservation and Recycling, 50, 40–57, 2007.

M. Chi, Y. Liu, and R. Huang, “Mechanical and microstructural characterization of alkali-activated materials based on fly ash and slag,” International Journal of Engineering and Technology, 7(1), 59-64, 2015.

W. Chen, and H. J. Brouwers, “The hydration of slag, part 1: reaction models for alkali-activated slag,” Journal of Materials Science, 42(2), 428-443, 2007.

M. B. Haha, B. Lothenbach, G. Le Saout, and F. Winnefeld, “Influence of slag chemistry on the hydration of alkali-activated blast-furnace slag — part I: Effect of MgO,” Cement and Concrete Research, 41(9), 955-963, 2011.

Q. Wang, P. Yan, and S. Han, “The influence of steel slag on the hydration of cement during the hydration process of complex binder,” Science China Technological Sciences, 54(2), 388-394, 2011.

J. L. Provis, R. J. Myers, C. E. White, V. Rose, and J. S. J. Van Deventer, “X-ray microtomography shows pore structure and tortuosity in alkali-activated binders,” Cement and Concrete Research, 42(6), 855-864, 2012.

Z. Tan, G. De Schutter, G. Ye, Y. Gao, and L. Machiels, “Influence of particle size on the early hydration of slag particle activated by ca solution,” Construction and Building Materials, 52, 488, 2014.

J. I. Escalantea, L. Y. Gomez, K. K. Johalb, G. Mendozaa, H. Manchaa, and J. Mendez, “Reactivity of Blast-Furnace Slag in Portland Cement Blends Hydrated Under Different Conditions,” Cement and Concrete Research 31, 1403–1409, 2001.

A. M. Rashad, and M. H. Khalil, “A preliminary study of alkali-activated slag blended with silica fume under the effect of thermal loads and thermal shock cycles,” Construction and Building Materials, 40, 522-532, 2013;

J. V. Dubrawski, “Thermal Characteristics of Aged Granulated Blast Furnace Slags,” Journal of Thermal Analysis, 48, 63-72, 1997.

[37] S. Aydın, and B. Baradan, “Effect of activator type and content on properties of alkali-activated slag mortars,” Composites Part B: Engineering, 57, 166-172, 2014.

X. Wu, D. M. Roy, and C. A. Langton, “Early stage hydration of slag-cement,” Cement and Concrete Research, 13, 277-286, 1983.

C. Shi, and J. Qian, “High performance cementing materials from industrial slags — a review,” Resources Conservation and Recycling, 29(3), 195-207, 2000.

R. E. Nicolas, and J. L. Provis, “The interfacial transition zone in alkali-activated slag mortars,” Frontiers in Materials, 2, 2015.

H. Ye, and A. Radlińska, “Shrinkage mechanisms of alkali-activated slag,” Cement and Concrete Research, 88, 126-135, 2016.

J. Lanas, J. L. Pérez Bernal, M. A. Bello, and J. I. Alvarez Galindo, “Mechanical properties of natural hydraulic lime-based mortars,” Cement and Concrete Research, 34(12), 2191–2201, 2004.

Y. Sébaı̈bi, R. M. Dheilly, and M. Quéneudec, “A study of the viscosity of lime–cement paste: Influence of the physico-chemical characteristics of lime,” Construction and Building Materials, 18(9), 653-660, 2004.

M. M. Hossain, M. R. Karim, M. K. Hossain, M. N. Islam, and M. F. M. Zain, “Durability of mortar and concrete containing alkali-activated binder with pozzolans: A review,” Construction and Building Materials, 93, 95-109, 2015.

British Standards Institution (BSI) (2000) BS EN 1015: Methods of Test for Mortar for Masonry – Part 3: Determination of Consistence of Fresh Mortar (by Flow Table).

British Standards Institution (BSI) (2010a) BS EN 998: Masonry Mortar – Part 2: Specification for Mortar for Masonry.

A. Moropoulou, “Reverse engineering: a proper methodology for compatible restoration mortars” RILEM Conference Proceedings on Historic Mortars, Delft, 2005.

A. Moropoulou, A. S. Cakmak, G. Biscontin, A. Bakolas, and E. Zendri, “Advanced byzantine cement based composites resisting earthquake stresses: The crushed brick/lime mortars of Justinian's Hagia Sophia,” Construction and Building Materials, 16(8), 543-552, 2002.

British Standards Institution (BSI) (2013) BS EN 13139: Aggregates for mortar - Part 3 (PD 6682): Guidance on the use of BS EN 13139.

ASTM C136 (2014) Standard Test Method for Particle Size Distributions.

ASTM C 33 (ASTM, 2016) Standard Specification for mortar Aggregates

British Standards Institution (BSI) (2010b). BS EN 459: Building Lime – Part 2: Test Method.

J. Lanas, and J. I. Alvarez-Galindo, “Masonry repair lime-based mortars: Factors affecting the mechanical behaviour” Cement and Concrete Research, 33(11), 1867-1876, 2003.

M. J. Mosquera, B. Silva, B.Prieto, and E. Ruiz-Herrera, “Addition of cement to lime-based mortars: effect on pore structure and vapor transport,” Cement and Concrete Research 36, 1635– 1642, 2006.

R. Hanley, and S. Pavía, “A study of the workability of natural hydraulic lime mortars and its influence on strength,” Materials and Structures, 41(2), 373-381, 2008.

ASTM C518 (2015) Standard Test Method for Steady-State Thermal Transmission Properties by Means of the Heat Flow Meter Apparatus. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Philadelphia.

British Standards Institution (BSI, 1999a). Methods of Test for Mortar for Masonry – Part 3: Determination of Consistence of Fresh Mortar (by Flow Table).

British Standards Institution (BSI) (1999b) BS EN 1015: Methods of Test for Mortar for Masonry – Part 7: Determination of Air content of Fresh Mortar.

M. Chi, and R. Huang, “Binding mechanism and properties of alkali-activated fly ash/slag mortars,” Construction and Building Materials, 40, 291-298, 2013.

H. Geng, and Q. Li, “Development of microstructure and chemical composition of hydration products of slag activated by ordinary portland cement,” Materials Characterization, 87, 149, 2014.

S. A. Bernal, J. L. Provis, V. Rose, R. Mej´ıa de Guti´errez, “High-resolution X-ray diffraction and fluorescence microscopy characterization of alkali-activated slag-metakaolin binders. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 96, 1951–57, 2013.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
[1]
Olaniyan, S. 2020. Towards Sustainable Composite Building Material: Integrating Lime with Slag for reduced mortar Thermal Conductivity. European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research. 5, 4 (Apr. 2020), 469-474. DOI:https://doi.org/10.24018/ejers.2020.5.4.855.