European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research 2021-04-20T00:05:12-04:00 Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Impact Factor</strong> : 0,69</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Monthly</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Country of Origin:</strong> Belgium</button></td> <td align="right" valign="bottom" width="20%" height="70px">&nbsp;<img src="/upload/documents/new10_e0.gif" alt="gif" border="0"></td> <td align="left" valign="bottom" height="125px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Passive Optical Network: A Fibre to the ‘X’ Approach 2021-04-20T00:05:12-04:00 R. O. Okeke V. E. Idigo M. O. Akemi S. K. Ogbuokebe <p>With the rapid increasing bandwidth demand mainly driven by the development of advanced broadband multimedia application, such as video-on-demand (VoD), interactive high-definition digital television (HDTV) and video conference, new access network solutions that provide high capacity are highly needed to satisfy these emerging services. In a largely populated and technologically exposed institution such the University of Port Harcourt, this demand is truly great. The Passive Optical Network (PON), which utilizes the Fibre Optic Technology, is a suitable solution to this problem. Hence this is geared towards the design and simulation of a Passive Optical Network for the University’s campus district. This Campus based Local Area Network consists of the Various Faculty buildings, the Senate building which is the central administrative building, and was centralized at the Information and Communication Technology Center (ICTC), which served as the Central Office of the network. The Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technique was utilized because of its dedicated bandwidth for each subscriber and more flexible bandwidth management. The validation was carried out on a virtual computation environment called OptiSystem©.</p> 2021-04-06T06:22:55-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 R. O. Okeke, V. E. Idigo, M. O. Akemi, S. K. Ogbuokebe The Features of Electronic Conduction in InAs 2021-04-20T00:05:12-04:00 E. Khutsishvilii Z. Chubinishvili G. Kekelidze I. Kalandadze T. Qamushadze M. Metskhvarishvili <p>The electrical properties of <em>n</em>-type crystals of InAs compound, grown from stoichiometric melt by the horizontal zone melting method, have been investigated in the temperature range of 4.2 K-300 K before and after fast neutron irradiation up to high integral fluences of 2×10<sup>18</sup><em>n</em>∙cm<sup>-2</sup>. At a fixed temperature electrons concentration (<em>n</em>) increases almost by one order during irradiation, and practically does not change with increasing of temperature. <em>n </em>increases only slightly by increasing of temperature near 300&nbsp;K, both before and after irradiation. When &nbsp;<em>≥ </em>4×10<sup>18</sup>cm<sup>-3</sup> the change of &nbsp;during irradiation is negligible. Comparison of experimental data of mobility with theory shows that the privileged scattering mechanism of electrons at 300 K is scattering on optical phonons in InAs with &nbsp;10<sup>16</sup>-10<sup>17</sup> cm<sup>-3 </sup>and scattering on ions of impurity in InAs with <em>n</em>~10<sup>18</sup>-10<sup>19</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup>. The analysis shows that during irradiation point type scattering centers of donor-type structural defects with shallow levels in the forbidden zone appear. Consequently, the mobility decreases during irradiation. At 300 K in &nbsp;sample with electrons concentration of 3×10<sup>16</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup> the mobility decreases by 5 times after irradiation, which is equivalent to the formation of 1.5×10<sup>19</sup>cm<sup>-3</sup> charged point scattering centers.</p> 2021-04-06T06:43:42-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 E. Khutsishviliis, Z. Chubinishvili, G. Kekelidze, I. Kalandadze, T. Qamushadze, M. Metskhvarishvili Modelling Production of Renewable Energy from Water Splitting High Thermal Electrolysis Processes 2021-04-20T00:05:11-04:00 Osaretin N.I. Ebuehi Kingsley Abhulimen Daniel O. Adebesin <p class="Abstract">Recently, fuel gas from water has become the center of attention because it is a renewable source of energy and eco-friendly. In this study, the hydrogen gas simulated was obtained from the high-temperature water splitting electrolysis model, because it is more efficient than the low-temperature water splitting electrolysis process. It also releases oxygen as a byproduct. The high-temperature electrolysis model is made up of three loops: primary high-temperature helium loop, secondary helium loop, and high-temperature electrolysis loop. Hydrogen gave a temperature of 27.2<sup>0</sup>C, a pressure of 49.5 bars, and a molar flow of 84.02MMSCFD. The hydrogen gas from a high-temperature electrolysis model is simulated with a CO<sub>2 </sub>gas stream to produce methane and water, also releasing unreacted carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Key parameters such as molar entropy, molar enthalpy, heat flow, and cost flow were evaluated by Aspen HYSYS V8.8. The simulation model used for this work is the Sabatier Process Model. In this model, Continuous stirred tank, Converter, Equilibrium, Gibbs, Plug flow reactors were used to generate methane. The Converter reactor gave the highest yield of methane gas with a mole fraction of 0.2390. Key benchmarks, including temperature, heat flow, cost flow, cost factor were varied to see how they can affect methane gas and other products.</p> 2021-04-12T05:54:16-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Osaretin N.I. Ebuehi, Kingsley Abhulimen, Daniel O. Adebesin Experimental Study of the Use of Phase Change Materials as Cooling Media on Photovoltaic Panels 2021-04-20T00:05:11-04:00 Razali Thaib Hamdani Umar T. Azuar Rizal <p class="Abstract">Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) is a combination of electrical technology from photovoltaic solar panels (PV) with building construction. The PV panel was mounted onto the frames attached to the building's main outer wall. When solar radiation energy comes into contact on the PV surface, some part is reflected in the surroundings while mostly absorbed in the PV panel. The energy absorbed is converted into electricity while the rest dissipates into thermal energy, which increases the surface temperature of PV. The increases in the panels' surface temperature negatively impact the electrical output and PV panels' long-term reliability. One of them is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as heat storage materials. This research also emphasizes the use of beeswax as a material for storing heat energy. Using the T-History method by fusing beeswax, show that the temperature range between 49,40 to 57.15 <sup>o</sup>C with latent enthalpy 151.65 kJ/kg. In this research, we tested the use of PCM as a heat storage material for PV panels. Two types of containers to accommodate PCM are used, triangular containers and semicircular containers. From the test results, it was found that beeswax can function well as a heat storage so that the surface temperature of the PV + PCM panel is lower than that of standard PV. So that the voltage generated is higher than standard PV panels.</p> 2021-04-12T06:00:06-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Razali Thaib, Hamdani Umar, T. Azuar Rizal Statistical Analysis of Electric Power Distribution Grid Outages 2021-04-20T00:05:11-04:00 Godwin Diamenu <p>Power systems in general supply consumers with electrical energy as economically and reliably as possible. Reliable electric power systems serve customer loads without interruptions in supply voltage. Electric power generation facilities must produce enough power to meet customer demand. Electrical energy produced and delivered to customers through generation, transmission and distribution systems, constitutes one of the largest consumers markets the world over. The benefits of electric power systems are integrated into the much faster modern life in such extent that it is impossible to imagine the society without the electrical energy. The rapid growth of electric power distribution grids over the past few decades has resulted in a large increment in the number of grid lines in operation and their total length. These grid lines are exposed to faults as a result of lightning, short circuits, faulty equipment, mis-operation, human errors, overload, and aging among others. A fault implies any abnormal condition which causes a reduction in the basic insulation strength between phase conductors or phase conductors and earth, or any earthed screens surrounding the conductors. In this paper, different types of faults that affected the electric power distribution grid of selected operational districts of Electricity Company of Ghana (ECG) in the Western region of Ghana was analyzed and the results presented. Outages due to bad weather and load shedding contributed significantly to the unplanned outages that occurred in the medium voltage (MV) distribution grid. Blown fuse and loose contact faults were the major contributor to unplanned outages in the low voltage (LV) electric power distribution grid.</p> 2021-04-12T06:22:23-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Godwin Diamenu Experimental Study of Beeswax / Rice Husk Ash Phase Changes Material as Energy Storage in Concrete 2021-04-20T00:05:10-04:00 Razali Thaib <p>Buildings with lightweight concrete are currently used as a solution for mass housing construction which is relatively cheaper, although it does not provide indoor thermal comfort due to the use of this building material. Lightweight concrete building materials are able to store heat for a long time, so that at night the heat is released indoors. The combination of building materials and PCM is an efficient way to increase the storage capacity of thermal energy in building components. The purpose of this study was to determine the compressive strength of the concrete if the coarse aggregate (gravel) was replaced by part of the gravel material using the Phase Change Material of beeswax (beeswax) according to the required percentage starting from 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and if the aggregate was fine. (Sand) is partially replaced aby using Rice husk ash with various variations starting from 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%. In addition, this utilization is a good alternative, because there will be a process of utilizing rice husk ash which was previously wasted while these items can be used or processed into additives to the concrete mixture.</p> 2021-04-13T08:23:28-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Razali Thaib Design and Implementation of an Esp32-Based Smart Embedded Industrial Poultry Farm 2021-04-20T00:05:10-04:00 Longinus S. Ezema Elochukwu C. Ifediora Akande A. Olukunle Nnaemeka C. Onuekwusi <p class="Abstract">Many poultry farmers are performing diverse operations manually. They, therefore, experience a huge financial loss as a result of their inability to properly automate the monitoring and control of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, air quality, and to ensure an adequate supply of light and water. These factors adversely affect the chicks and lead to respiratory, digestive, and behavioural disorders. This affects the chicks’ food intake and leads to an increase in mortality rate and chances of diseases. Therefore, this paper seeks to address these factors by developing an embedded poultry farm. The system was developed using an advanced yet low-cost and low-power System-on-Chip offering WiFi baseband processor and a plethora of peripheral interfaces for the actuators and sensors while Arduino emulator in Proteus 8 was the tool used for the design simulation. The system when tested was able to sense environmental parameter status wirelessly and responds accordingly to regulate and maintain an optimum condition for improved health condition for the chicks. The automated system will help for the purpose of improving productivity and environmental or climatic conditions in the poultry farm, making it conducive for the broiler chicks.</p> 2021-04-15T09:05:49-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Longinus S. Ezema, Elochukwu C. Ifediora, Akande A. Olukunle, Nnaemeka C. Onuekwusi