https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/issue/feed European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2019-06-19T18:47:39-04:00 Editor-in-Chief editor@ejers.org Open Journal Systems <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; 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margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org"><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org">editor@ejers.org</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jW1fB2qUlOU" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.europapublishing.org">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (iThenticate.com).</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.doi.org/">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2506-8016"><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scilit.net/pub/article/10.24018"><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=so%3AEuropean+Journal+of+Engineering+Research+and+Science&amp;qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scienceopen.com/user/3eed4386-308b-4036-abc4-d2d83df0dcdd"><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="https://www.ieee.org/conferences/publishing/templates.html">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1356 Elaboration of an Antimicrobial, Biodegradable and Aromatic Film Against the Natural Contamination of Sliced Mozzarella Cheese 2019-06-19T17:42:54-04:00 Ilana Racowski ilmb@usp.br Catia Palma de Moura Almeida catia_mou@yahoo.com.br Camila Martim de Andrade Silva camila@gmail.com Gabriela Tapias de Carvalho gabi@hotmail.com <p>The search for foods that do not use chemical preservatives in their composition has been growing over the years, and as a result, studies on active packaging have been intensified, which has as principle, in addition to protecting, transporting and containing the food, interact with it. In this context, the present study has developed an active antimicrobial, aromatic and biodegradable packaging in order to reduce the natural contamination of sliced Mozzarella cheese, which has shelf life of five days after manipulation. For this, a film was developed containing cassava starch, a plasticizing agent, gum arabic and oregano essential oil, as an antimicrobial agent. The research used the serial dilution methodology for counting and to aid in the isolation of the product natural contamination. The diffusion methodology in Agar in PDA medium with chloramphenicol was used to identify the antimicrobial power of the polymer matrix and the Casting method for film manufacture. With the results, it was possible to identify that only the film with the addition of oregano essential oil showed fungicidal action when compared to the same film without it, forming an inhibition halo of about 25 mm against Hyphopichia burtonii yeast isolated from the product itself, when stored under conditions stipulated by the supplier (Styrofoam trays stored in conventional refrigerator).</p> 2019-06-07T16:26:11-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Ilana Racowski, Catia Palma de Moura Almeida, Camila Martim de Andrade Silva, Gabriela Tapias de Carvalho https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1351 Assessment of Selected Biomass Energy Potential in Afghanistan 2019-06-15T14:04:49-04:00 Abdul Ghani Noori ghani.1001@yahoo.com P. Abdul Salam salam@ait.ac.th Agha Mohammad Fazli agha7437@gmail.com <p>Biomass plays a major role in satisfying the energy needs of Afghanistan, especially in the residential sector where fuel demand is primarily met in the form of fuelwood, charcoal, crop residues and animal manure. Till now, enough work has not been undertaken to assess the biomass energy potential in the country to support renewable energy development plans and more sustainable use of biomass resources. This paper is limited to the assessment of biomass energy potential from the following resources: (A) forest fuelwood and charcoal, (B) crop residues (wheat, rice, barley and maize residues) and (C) cattle manure for the years 2012-13 and 2013-14. The study assesses a total biomass energy potential of 97,310 TJ during the period 2012-13 and 99,012 TJ during the period 2013-14. It is observed that only about 52% of the estimated biomass energy potential is being exploited. The estimated energy potential of the selected biomass could contribute up to 69% in the primary energy consumption of Afghanistan (140,966 TJ) during the year 2012-13.&nbsp;</p> 2019-06-12T16:49:59-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Abdul Ghani Noori, P. Abdul Salam, Agha Mohammad Fazli https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1353 Stochastic Analysis of the Exchange Rate of Naira, YEN, GBP, CFA and FRANC in Relation to US Dollar and Predicting the Naira for the Year 2025 2019-06-12T17:06:53-04:00 Ledisi Giok Kabari ledisigiokkabari@yahoo.com Believe B. Nwamae believe.nwamae@ust.edu.ng <p>In Nigeria today, constant fluctuations of exchange rate or volatility is of great importance in one way or the other to the general public because its fluctuation has an effect on the economy. The objectives of the paper were to investigate the recent changes in the naira currency and other world currencies if there appear to be any relationship. Data was obtained from daily exchange rate of different countries’ currencies from 12/10/2005 and 2/11/2018 with 3,190 observations obtainable from the Data and statistics publication of the Central Bank of Nigeria. The study investigates the past recent changes in the naira and four foreign currencies of the world (Pounds, Yen, Cfa and Swiss Franc) and their relationship plotted as signal using MATLAB 2016a.&nbsp; The four currencies were randomly selected from the list of world currencies. Multiple Linear Regression was used to perform the analysis. The analysis of 3,190 observation resulted in a prediction model that has 97% prediction accuracy, which suggests that under ideal circumstances and baring any natural disaster, total collapse of the economy or major crisis like recession.&nbsp; The results from the model of this study suggest that fluctuation in currency exchange rate of other currencies has significance on the Nigerian exchange rate and as such should be considered when designing exchange rate policies.</p> 2019-06-12T17:06:53-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Ledisi Giok Kabari, Believe B. Nwamae https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1254 Influence of British Pottery on Pottery Practice in Nigeria 2019-06-12T17:34:44-04:00 Edem Etim Peters edem.peters@uniport.edu.ng Ruth Mataba Gadzama edem.peters@yahoo.com <p>The pottery narratives of Nigeria majorly linked with the activities of a great British potter Michael Cardew who Established pottery centres in Nigeria, and trained many Nigerians in Pottery. Cardew studied under Bernard Leach (1887 – 1979) who travels extensively and taught pottery around the world.Leach studied pottery under Master Kenzan VI in Japan and returned to England in 1920 to establish his own pottery at St. Ives with Shoji Hamada. The impact in pottery created by Cardew in Nigeria from 1950 is a direct British Pottery influence imparted to him by leach at St. Ives. A British potter and artist, Kenneth C. Murray studied pottery under Bernard Leach at St. Ives in 1929 and returned back to Uyo in Nigeria to produce and teach students pottery. Murray produced pottery wares from the Kiln he built at Uyo and took his students to exhibit the ware along with other art works at Zwember gallery (Britain) in 1937. Chief Adam Joshua Udo Ema also studied pottery in 1949 in Britain and later returned to work as a pottery officer at Okigwe Pottery centre as well as established three pottery centres in Nigeria Namely; Ikot Abasi Pottery centre at Etinan, Pottery centre at Mbiafun Ikono, and pottery centre at Ikot Ntot in Abak. Many other Nigerian studied pottery in Nigeria. Lady Kwalii pottery experience was influenced by Michael Cardew. Her pottery influence seen pottery products exhibited in various parts of the world depicted a coordination of Niger and British Pottery influences. A case study design is considered for methodological approach. Data were taken from primary and secondary sources and analyzed respectively. British influence on Nigeria is indeed outstanding.</p> 2019-06-12T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Edem Etim Peters, Ruth Mataba Gadzama https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1355 Wind Data Analysis, Annual Resource Estimation And Comparison With Measured Annual Energy Yield at the University Wind Turbine 2019-06-14T05:12:37-04:00 James Maina Muriithi jemuse976@gmail.com Harrison Ngetha harrison.ngetha@dkut.ac.ke Jean Byiringiro jean.bosco@dkut.ac.ke Kevin Volkmer kevin.volkmer@uni-siegen.de Thomas Carolus thomas.carolus@uni-siegen.de <p>Evaluation of the power potential of a particular type of wind turbine at a specific site is necessary for economic decisions. Therefore, the information of a wind turbine and that of a site have to be measured or predicted and then combined with the power curve of a wind turbine. The main objective of this research was to predict the power potential of the existing small wind turbine with a diameter of 3m and the wind turbine site at the University of Siegen and compare with the annual energy calculated from the measured one year of wind and turbine data. Techniques for prediction of the wind speed distribution of a site were determined and modeled. The power curve of the wind turbine was modeled from data recorded by applying a technique from the novel methods for modelling the power curve. In this research, artificial neural network, Weibull and Rayleigh are the techniques modeled to predict wind speed distribution at the wind turbine site. Rayleigh and Weibull were chosen since the two models depict a better wind speed distribution and require the mean and the standard deviation of the wind speed at the wind turbine site. A neural network trained with the backward propagation levernberg-Marquardt algorithm was applied to predict the wind speed and power potential of the wind turbine site. A comparison between Weibull, Rayleigh and the Levernberg-Marquardt trained neural network wind speed was made.&nbsp;The power curve of the wind turbine was successfully evaluated from wind data and wind turbine data recorded. The results indicate that the annual mean wind speed of the region is 2.54 (m/s) and about 20% of the wind availability was blowing from the west. The annual energy yield predicted from the trained neural network was 372 (kWh) closer to that determined from measured wind speed 360 (kWh) than that determined from Weibull and Rayleigh 337 and 233 (kWh) respectively. The three prediction models are applicable in any region to predict the annual energy of a particular wind turbine site with minimal data available.</p> 2019-06-14T05:12:37-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 James Maina Muriithi, Harrison Ngetha, Jean Byiringiro, Kevin Volkmer, Thomas Carolus https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1308 A Conceptual Framework for Organisation of River Basin Developmentand Management in Nigeria 2019-06-15T15:21:57-04:00 Bukar Abba Gana babbaganatt@gmail.com Isah Funtua Abdulkadir babbaganatt@gmail.com Hassan Musa babbaganatt@gmail.com Tijjani Garba babbaganatt@gmail.com <p>River Basin Development Authorities (RBDAs) in Nigeria were established since 1976 and they operate mechanized and capital intensive programmes. All the 12 RBDAs operate as separate Authorities, each with separate administrative and operational autonomy, but sharing the Basin Resources of the 8 Hydrological Areas. However, their performance was generally described as disappointing. This study first reviewed the existing organization of the 12 RBDAs in Nigeria. Thereafter, one of the 8 Hydrological Areas – the Komadugu-Yobe Basin (KYB) – which is the major inland drainage system in Nigeria was purposely selected for detailed study.&nbsp; Information on its major streams, tributaries and the main river; the hydrological area as well as the RBDAs sharing resources of the basin area, was gathered using ArcGIS version 10.0 and Erdas Imagine 9.2 software, as well as topographical and hydrological maps. This was processed and analyzed based on the principles of Stream Ordering and Logical Framework Analysis. The findings revealed that in establishing the RBDAs, basin-wide consideration of their sphere of operation was not taken into account. Dams were constructed before establishing the RBDAs. Runoff waters and spill ways were poorly controlled leading to flooding during rainy season and reduced water supply downstream during dry season, with serious environmental and socio-economic problems in the basin area. It was concluded that the RBDAs in Nigeria were poorly organized and have consequently failed to accelerate agricultural and rural development, and have also failed to boost food and industrial crop production as expected. The need was established for effective organization of River Basin Development and Management to improve their performance. To achieve this, a Conceptual framework for Integrated River Basin Development and Management was developed for adoption by river basin managers and other relevant stakeholders in Nigeria and around the globe to improve performance.</p> 2019-06-15T15:21:57-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Bukar Abba Gana, Isah Funtua Abdulkadir, Hassan Musa, Tijjani Garba https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1307 Investigating Phase Over-Current (OC) Protection in Medium-Voltage networks 2019-06-15T16:26:04-04:00 Aniagboso John Onah aniagbosoonah@yahoo.com <p>Overcurrent protection is protection against excessive currents or current beyond the acceptable current rating of equipment. It generally operates instantly. Short circuit is a type of overcurrent. Magnetic circuit breakers, fuses and overcurrent relays are commonly used to provide overcurrent protection. There is always a need to protect expensive power equipment. Protective relaying is a very important part of any electric power system that comes into play during trouble, fault or abnormal condition. The purpose is to isolate unhealthy part of electrical power system while the rest continue their normal operation. The entire electric power system from source to load centers is exposed and subject to natural hazards. The effects of these hazards are capable of interrupting normal operations of the system. Since these hazards cannot be prevented, precautions are taken to minimize or eliminate their effect on the system. The relay is a basic component of any protection scheme. The information (or signals) received from the power system actuates the relay, when necessary, to perform one or more switching actions. The signals are proportional to the magnitudes and phase angles of power system voltages and currents. When the relay receives these signals, it decides to close (or open) one or more sets of normally open (or closed) contacts, and consequently, the trip coil of a circuit breaker will be energized to open the power circuit. This paper investigates over-current relay protection scheme applied to medium-voltage electrical network. Methods of current and time grading have been applied in the coordination of the overcurrent relays in a radial network. Different time/current characteristics of relays such as the normal inverse (NI), very inverse (VI), and extreme inverse (EI) have been examined in order to obtain optimum discrimination.</p> 2019-06-15T16:26:04-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Aniagboso John Onah https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1369 Fuzzy Logic for Refining the Evaluation of Learners’ Performance in Online Engineering Education 2019-06-15T16:58:53-04:00 Akrivi Krouska akrouska@uniwa.gr Christos Troussas ctrouss@uniwa.gr Cleo Sgouropoulou csgouro@uniwa.gr <p>Intelligent tutoring systems have been widely used for optimizing the educational process by creating a student-centered learning environment. As a matter of fact, an integral part of intelligent tutoring systems is the evaluation of the learners’ performance. In traditional learning, the instructors calculate the grade of the students derived from the assessment units and other factors, such as the difficulty of the exercises or their effort, in order to produce the final students’ score in the course. However, in most cases, the evaluation of learners’ performance in intelligent tutoring systems takes place by calculating an average grade of students without taking into account the aforementioned factors. In view of the above, this paper presents a novel way for refining the evaluation of students’ performance using fuzzy logic. As a testbed for our research, we have designed and implemented an intelligent tutoring system holding social networking characteristic for teaching the engineering course of “Compilers”. More specifically, the system is responsible for acquiring information about students such as their grades, the kinds of misconceptions, the level of tests’ difficulty as well as their effort including their social interaction, i.e. participation in forums, making comments in posts and posting regarding the educational process. Taking these into consideration, fuzzy logic model diagnoses the accuracy of students’ grade and the system suggests that the instructor redefine students’ grade properly. Our system was evaluated using t-test and the results show high accuracy and objectivity in the evaluation of students’ performance.</p> 2019-06-15T16:58:53-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Akrivi Krouska, Christos Troussas, Cleo Sgouropoulou https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1340 Analysis of Forest Vegetal Characteristics of Akure Forest Reserve from Optical Imageries and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data 2019-06-16T17:32:22-04:00 Isaac Adelakun Gbiri gbiriisaac@yahoo.com Isaac Arome Idoko idokoisaac@yahoo.com Michael Oketunde Okegbola okegbolamicheal@yahoo.com Latifat Olaide Oyelakin olabiyi_olaide@yahoo.com <p>Forest vegetal characteristics monitoring has a long tradition records with a success rate ranging from low to medium or high depends on the&nbsp; application at the hands. Details information about the indication of association of phenomena as forest indicators, such forest gap, estate and forest status, provides high spatial resolution images. The aim of this study focuses on combining unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and satellite multispectral imaging along side by side to details forest parameter during the seasons. UAVs image at 0.15m appeared more detailed of having features such as rock, road, bare ground, riparian trees among others than that of Landsat OLI image, though the features such as rock, road, bare ground, and riparian forest were also seen on the image but it was poorly seen due to the coarse spatial resolution of 30 m. The 3-Dimensional of UAVs, relief pattern and contour from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was also compared and this study further demonstrated on the advantages of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle data over established remotely sensed data which includes flying blow the cloud, high spatial resolution, flexibility, inexpensive of data acquisition, time effective, using video footage to detect human activities such as tree flora, burning and logging.</p> 2019-06-17T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Isaac Adelakun gbiri, Isaac Arome Idoko, Michael Oketunde Okegbola, Latifat Olaide Oyelakin https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1368 Effect of Moulding Pressure on Brake Lining Produced from Industrial Waste Material: Sawdust 2019-06-17T17:12:45-04:00 Taiwo Oseni Oladokun taiwoseni60@yahoo.com Joseph Temitope Stephen, Dr stevejaytee@yahoo.com Adeyinka Adebayo, Dr yka615@yahoo.com Gbenga Joshua Adeyemi, Dr adeyemi4unad@yahoo.com <p>In this study, asbestos-free brake lining was developed with sawdust. Sawdust was considered an alternative to asbestos, whose dust is carcinogenic. The sawdust from hard wood (mahogany and iroko trees) and other components such as abrasive, reinforcer, lubricant, were sieved into grade of 100 µm and used in production of brake linings. The percentages of sawdust for the samples are 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60. The percentages of abrasives (silicon carbides) were 27, 22, 17, 12 and 7, while binder (resins) lubricant (steel dust) and carbon black (reinforcer) were constant at 13%, 15% and 5% respectively on each sample. The molding pressure load was varied at 10 Mg, 20 Mg, 40 Mg, 60 Mg and 80 Mg during compression process. The brake lining properties examined are hardness, compressive strength and density. Also, the effects of molding pressure on these properties were evaluated. The results obtained show that the higher the molding pressure, the better the physical and mechanical properties. Furthermore, at high molding pressure, the properties reached a limiting point which they tend to be constant.&nbsp; The brake linings based on sawdust were then compared with commercial (asbestos-based) brake lining and the results are in close agreement. Hence, sawdust can be effectively used as filler for replacement of asbestos in brake linings.</p> 2019-06-17T17:12:45-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Taiwo Oseni Oladokun, Joseph Temitope Stephen, Dr, Adeyinka Adebayo, Dr, Gbenga Joshua Adeyemi, Dr https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1372 The Strategic Development in Logistics in Vietnam 2019-06-17T17:28:23-04:00 Hai Nam Vu namcao1979.ut@gmail.com <p>Vietnam transport and logistics activities are on the rise along with the increase in import and export activities. According to a recent announcement by the World Bank (WB), Vietnam is ranked at position 39 with a significant improvement in its LPI (Logistics performance index). 3.27, ranking 3 in ASEAN (after Singapore position 7 and Thailand position 32) ranking of 2018 logistics activities, is considered to have better logistics service performance than comparable income markets. Surveying enterprises of Vietnam Report transport and logistics industry shows that they expect that legal corridors, infrastructure and IT applications will be prioritized to improve enterprises' efficiency in transport services and logistics in Vietnam. Along with the development trend of e-commerce, the entry into Vietnam market of big foreign retailers increases the risk of acquiring local logistics channels, which makes domestic enterprises face many disadvantages. According to Vietnam Report, management agencies need to see this issue, supplement necessary legal corridors (such as regulations on the limit of foreign ownership ratios in e-commerce enterprises, logistics), appropriately adjust tax regulations to avoid price transfer and tax evasion, thereby creating a fair, competitive environment for logistics enterprises.</p> 2019-06-17T17:28:23-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hai Nam Vu https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1370 Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete Using Local Materials and Various Curing Conditions 2019-06-18T15:50:19-04:00 Gamal I. K. gamal.ismail@bhit.bu.edu.eg K. M. Elsayed khelsayed@hotmail.com Mohamed Hussein Makhlouf mohamedmakhlouf83@yahoo.com M. Alaa engmalaa1507@gmail.com <p>Reactive Powder Concrete RPC is comprise of (cement, quartz powder, sand, and superplasticizer) mixture with low water/cement ratio. It has not coarse aggregates and characterized by highly dense matrix, high strength concrete, excellent durability, and economic. This study aims to investigate fresh and hardened properties of locally cast RPC with several available economical materials such as silica fume (SF), fly ash (FA), steel fiber (STF), and glass fiber (GF). Experimental investigation were performed to study the effectiveness of partial replacement of cement by SF or FA to reach ultra-high strength concrete, effect of additional materials STF or GF in order to improve the fracture properties of the RPC mixes, and influence of the treated with normal water as well as with hot water. Fifteen different RPC mixes were cast with 20, 25, 30, and 35% cement replacement by SF, 25% cement replacement by FA, and another proportions taken combination between SF and FA with percentages 15, 20, 25% FA and constant 10% SF. Varying fiber types (steel fiber or glass fiber) added to concrete by different percentages 1, 2, and 3%. Specimens were treated with normal water 25<a href="https://www.ijert.org/"><sup>ᵒ</sup></a>C and hot water at 60<a href="https://www.ijert.org/"><sup>ᵒ</sup></a>C and 90<a href="https://www.ijert.org/"><sup>ᵒ</sup></a>C by 2 mixes with silica fume content 25% of binder and steel fiber content 2% by total volume. Performance of the various mixes is tested by the slump flow, compressive strength, flexure strength, splitting tensile strength, and density. The production of RPC using local materials is successfully get compressive strength of 121 MPa at the age of 28 days at standard conditions and normal water curing 25°C with Silica fume content 25% of binder and steel fiber content 2% by total volume of RPC and water/binder ratio of 0.25.&nbsp; The results also showed the effect of curing by hot water 60 and 90°C, it is observed that compressive strength increases proportionally with curing temperatures and a compressive strength of 149.1 MPa at 90°C for 1days was obtained<em>.</em></p> 2019-06-18T15:50:19-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Gamal I. K., K. M. Elsayed, Mohamed Hussein Makhlouf, M. Alaa https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1349 Assessment of Change in the Built-Up Index of Uyo Metropolis and Its Environs Using Remote Sensing 2019-06-19T17:34:38-04:00 Aniekan Effiong Eyoh aniekaneyoh@uniuyo.edu.ng Akwaowo Ekpa akwaowoekpa@uniuyo.edu.ng <p>The research was aim at assessing the change in the Built-up Index of Uyo metropolis and its environs from 1986 to 2018, using remote sensing data. To achieve this, a quantitative analysis of changes in land use/land cover within the study area was undertaken using remote sensing dataset of Landsat TM, ETM+ and OLI sensor images of 1986, 2000 and 2018 respectively. Supervised classification, using the maximum likelihood algorithm, was used to classify the study area into four major land use/land cover types; built-up land, bare land/agricultural land, primary swamp vegetation and secondary vegetation. Image processing was carried out using ERDAS IMAGINE and ArcGIS software. The Normalised Difference Built-up Index (NDBI) was calculated to obtain the built-up index for the study area in 1986, 2000 and 2018 as -0.20 to +0.45, -0.13 to +0.55 and -0.19 to +0.63 respectively. The result of the quantitative analysis of changes in land use/land cover indicated that Built-up Land had been on a constant and steady positive growth from 6.76% in 1986 to 11.29% in 2000 and 44.04% in 2018.</p> 2019-06-19T17:34:38-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Aniekan Effiong Eyoh, Akwaowo Ekpa https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1374 Improving the Properties of Pure Vegetable Oils to Use Directly in Diesel Engines 2019-06-19T18:47:39-04:00 Thanh Hai Truong tien.lequocvimaru@gmail.com Thi Minh Hao Dong tien.lequocvimaru@gmail.com <p>Some typical types of biofuels widely known today include: bioethanol (bioetanol), biodiesel (biodiesel), green diesel (diesel), biological kerosene (biokerosen-or reactive fuel). biological forces), other biological alcohols (methanol, butanol), bio ether, biogas, synthetic gas, solid biomass fuel. In fact, the two most important biofuels are bioetanol and biodiesel, because of the many properties they have: use for the two most common types of vehicles (gasoline and motor vehicles). diesel engine); has many properties similar to fossil fuels, but cleaner and cleaner; produced from abundant and renewable materials such as sugar, starch and animal and vegetable fats and oils. The paper presents results obtained from a method applied for improving the properties of pure bio-oil aiming a direct use as a fuel in conventional diesel engines. Some typical properties such as high viscosity, high surface tension, high density and high cloud point are considered to be improved within this study. Characteristics of the viscosity, density and the surface tension versus fuel temperature are established. Findings of this study provide a basis for calculation and design a heating system of bio-oil fuel and for improving some typical properties of this fuel in order to use directly in diesel engines of small generator sets or diesel engines used in agriculture, forestry fields or in small boats.</p> 2019-06-20T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Thanh Hai Truong, Thi Minh Hao Dong https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1375 The Economic Prospects of Vietnam in the Integration Period 2019-06-19T18:19:51-04:00 Hai Nam Vu phamtai.cofer@gmail.com Thi Cam Huyen Nguyen phamtai.cofer@gmail.com <p>In the reports of international organizations and economic researchers, there seems to be "common formulas" for the advance economies of Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is not necessary to think of different theories and policies, but to make a determination, to drastically implement the signs, experiences, lessons and universal values ​​of the "tigers" that go ahead. The leader of Singapore's transformation summarized the principle of a nation's success as having a decisive leadership class, an effective management apparatus and a disciplined society. To turn tigers, Vietnam needs to achieve a growth rate of 7% or more over the next twenty years. So how to achieve that goal, avoiding going into the car's woes of economies that have fallen into the middle-income trap. Only with such a growth rate can Vietnam be in the best position to protect its independence and sovereignty.</p> 2019-06-20T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Hai Nam Vu, Thi Cam Huyen Nguyen https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1367 Efficacy of Sterol-Inhibiting Fungicides on the Control of Scab Disease (Venturia Inaequalis) in Apple Tree 2019-06-19T18:45:53-04:00 Edlira Shahinasi eshahinasi@ubt.edu.al Ferdi Brahushi eshahinasi@ubt.edu.al <p>Apple scab, caused by Venturia Inaequalis is one of the most problematic diseases of apples in Korça region. The control of this disease requires different applications of fungicides. The aim of the study was the estimation of efficacy of sterol-inhibiting fungicides such as myclobutanil and penconazole on the control of scab disease. The effectiveness of fungicides was evaluated for two cultivars Golden Delicious and Starking and the minimum and the maximum recommended doses were applied. The obtained results showed that scab prevalence in leave ranges from 79.2% to 85.6% respectively in untreated trees of Golden Delicious and Starking cultivars. The scab prevalence of leaves in apples treated with pesticides ranges from 18.1% in Golden Delicious cultivar to 22.2% in Starking cultivar, meanwhile the scab prevalence in fruit varies from 4.2% in Starking cultivar to 6.1% in Golden Delicious cultivar. &nbsp;The disease index of leave in untreated control varies from 38.4% to 40.1% respectively for Golden Delicious cultivar and Starking cultivar, while the severity of fruit in untreated trees varies from 45.6% in Starking cultivar to 49.0% in Golden cultivar. Therefore, the data showed that the uses of sterol-inhibiting fungicides were effective in the control of scab disease.</p> 2019-06-20T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Edlira Shahinasi, Ferdi Brahushi