https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/issue/feed European Journal of Engineering and Technology Research 2021-06-12T02:36:57-04:00 Editor-in-Chief editor@ejers.org Open Journal Systems <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; 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margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org"><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org">editor@ejers.org</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jW1fB2qUlOU" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.europapublishing.org">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (iThenticate.com).</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.doi.org/">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2506-8016"><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scilit.net/pub/article/10.24018"><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=so%3AEuropean+Journal+of+Engineering+Research+and+Science&amp;qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scienceopen.com/user/3eed4386-308b-4036-abc4-d2d83df0dcdd"><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="https://www.ieee.org/conferences/publishing/templates.html">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2435 3D-Position Determination using GNSS Techniques – A Comparative Analysis 2021-06-10T00:15:38-04:00 Temitayo A. Adeseye temitayoadeseye@gmail.com Gafar Suara gsuara@futa.edu.ng <p>This study was carried out to determine 3D-position of selected points within Obafemi Awolowo University. The points were located at Africa Regional Institute for Geospatial Information Science and Technology (AFRIGST), Central Technological and Laboratory Workshops (CTLW), main Bus Stop, Religion ground, New Environmental Design and Management (New EDM), and Spider building. China HuaCe Corporation (CHC) GPS and Promark 3 GPS were used to carry out observation on the selected points. The data gotten were post processed using GNSS solution software for Promark3, Compass software for CHC GPS and the result gotten were compared with the known coordinates of those points. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) to determine the most accurate instrument between the two. The occupation time for the two instruments on each station was 45 minutes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Chi square Variance analysis were conducted, the result showed that there is no significant difference between the observations of the two instruments in comparison with the adjusted coordinate. It can be concluded that any of the two instruments can be used for 3D point positioning to obtain accurate result.</p> 2021-05-06T04:59:44-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Temitayo A. Adeseye, Gafar Suara https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2438 Detection of EEG-Based Eye-Blinks Using A Thresholding Algorithm 2021-06-10T00:15:37-04:00 Dang-Khoa Tran tdkhoa@hcmute.edu.vn Thanh-Hai Nguyen nthai@hcmute.edu.vn Thanh-Nghia Nguyen nghiant@hcmute.edu.vn <p>In the electroencephalography (EEG) study, eye blinks are a commonly known type of ocular artifact that appears most frequently in any EEG measurement. The artifact can be seen as spiking electrical potentials in which their time-frequency properties are varied across individuals. Their presence can negatively impact various medical or scientific research or be helpful when applying to brain-computer interface applications. Hence, detecting eye-blink signals is beneficial for determining the correlation between the human brain and eye movement in this paper. The paper presents a simple, fast, and automated eye-blink detection algorithm that did not require user training before algorithm execution. EEG signals were smoothed and filtered before eye-blink detection. We conducted experiments with ten volunteers and collected three different eye-blink datasets over three trials using Emotiv EPOC+ headset. The proposed method performed consistently and successfully detected spiking activities of eye blinks with a mean accuracy of over 96%.</p> 2021-05-11T04:03:40-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Dang-Khoa Tran, Thanh-Hai Nguyen, Thanh-Nghia Nguyen https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2431 The Zero-Point Oscillations in the Planck Vacuum State and Its Coordinate Uncertainty 2021-06-10T00:15:37-04:00 William C. Daywitt wcdaywitt@me.com <p>This short paper argues that the charged quantum oscillators in the quasi-continuum Planck vacuum (PV) state are responsible for the zero-point oscillations in that state. The Planck particle (PP) quantum energy levels for the oscillators are derived from first principles. The PV coordinate uncertainty concerning the PV structure easily follows from these results.</p> 2021-05-13T06:33:41-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 William C. Daywitt https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2439 Restructuring of Backrest and Drainage Provision System in the Campus Area 2021-06-10T00:15:37-04:00 Ofik T. Purwadi mailto.ofik.taupik@eng.unila.ac.id L. Afriani afriani_l@eng.unila.ac.id A. Zakaria ahmad.zakaria@eng.unila.ac.id <p class="Abstract">The University of Lampung area, especially in the Faculty of ISIP, FEB, and FT is a densely packed student area. This area has undergone many land-use changes. The condition of the land as a green open space has changed its function to become an area for lecture buildings and offices. One of the impacts is an increase in direct surface runoff and a decrease in the quantity of water that seeps into the ground, this condition causes flooding during the rainy season. To facilitate the rehabilitation of the drainage system in the University of Lampung area, it is necessary to redesign the drainage system of the University of Lampung area. Rehabilitation of drainage channels is carried out to resolve flood inundation points that occur during the rainy season. Rainwater that is channeled through drainage channels is directed to natural or artificial reservoirs. The collected rainwater is used to recharge groundwater through natural infiltration methods. The analysis carried out in this study includes hydrological analysis and analysis of the existing drainage sections and the solutions are given. The hydrological analysis aims to calculate the planned discharge using the rational method. Modeling with the application used in this study aims to determine the capacity of the water level in the existing channel. Based on the results of the analysis, in the area, the Faculty of Engineering experienced runoff and inundation. This situation requires rehabilitation of the Lampung University area drainage system.</p> 2021-05-14T07:35:14-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Ofik T. Purwadi, L. Afriani, A. Zakaria https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2428 The Modelling and Simulation of 330 KV, 600 MW Shiroro Substation in the DIgSILENT Environment for Integration of Hybrid Solar PV – Hydro System to Improve Power Supply in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Abuja from Shiroro, Nigeria 2021-06-10T00:15:36-04:00 Onyinyechi A. Uwaoma onyinye4uwaoma@gmail.com Jonas N. Emechebe jonasemechebe@gmail.com Muhammed Uthman m.uthman@yahoo.com Omotayo Oshiga ooshiga@nileuniversity.edu.ng Samuel Olisa Samuel.olisa@unn.edu.ng <p>This research paper focuses on modelling and simulation of 330 KV, 600 MW Shiroro Substation in the DIgSILENT Environment for the integration of Hybrid Solar PV – Hydro System to improve power supply in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) of Abuja, Nigeria. A hybrid energy system is a system that combines multiple types of energy generations to satisfy the demand of the users effectively and efficiently. The Solar Photovoltaic (PV)/Hydro hybrid system consists of electrical energy generated from solar PV and hydro energy. Effect of environmental issues, reduction of fossil fuels in addition to its high cost have actively encouraged interest in great integration of renewable energy sources in power systems. This work capitalized on the possibilities of harnessing commercial solar energy and feeding it to the National grid through a nearby 330 KV substation at Shiroro Dam. The simulation is carried out in DIgSILENT (Power factory) environment. The Shiroro 16 kV, 330 kV, 600 MW Transmission Lines are modelled, and results of simulations of the five bus bars (Jebba, Shiroro, Gwagwalada, Katampe and Kaduna) voltages directly connected to Shiroro Network are: 331.8kV, 331.7 kV, 329.3 kV, 325.6 kV and 332.2 kV, respectively. All the values are within the Operational and Statutory Limits of the National Grid Code.</p> 2021-05-14T14:04:17-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Onyinyechi A. Uwaoma, Jonas N. Emechebe, Muhammed Uthman, Omotayo Oshiga, Samuel Olisa https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2444 Digitization in Archival Material Conservation Processes 2021-06-10T00:15:36-04:00 George Malaperdas envcart@yahoo.gr <p class="Abstract">The purpose of this paper is the digitization process and the techniques used, in cases of archival material preservation. Digitization as a process, whether it involves old documents and old maps, or audio and video clips, is the most appropriate process not only for the protection, but also for the reuse, upgrading and highlighting of cultural heritage elements. In this paper, the main problems are presented divided into the main categories of archival material (photographic material, printed material, audio, and video material) while at the same time the equipment and means used are presented.</p> 2021-05-18T08:46:40-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 George Malaperdas https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2446 Hydraulic Modelling of Different Working Regimes in Water Pipeline. Case Study: Mihaliq – Water Treatment Plant “SHKABAJ” 2021-06-10T00:15:36-04:00 Gjelosh Vataj gjelosh.vataj@tempulli.org Xhevat Berisha xhevat.berisha@uni-pr.edu Zenel Sejfijaj zsejfijaj@hotmail.com <p>In the flow through the pipes, we have unstable movements when, due to the closing or opening of the valve or other hydraulic equipment, the speed of movement of the liquid changes. The change in velocity causes inertial forces to arise in the liquid which cause pressure changes in the flow. The phenomenon characterized by these pressure changes is called hydraulic water hammer.</p> <p>The hydraulic shock can be called the increase or decrease of the flow pressure in the pipe caused by the change in time (in any section) of the flow velocity.</p> <p>The objective of this paper is to provide information and resources to assist water company management and their staff in identifying and implementing opportunities to reduce energy use. Case study is Pumping Station in Milloshevo managed by Regional Water Company “PRISHTINA”.</p> 2021-05-19T03:47:03-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Gjelosh Vataj, Xhevat Berisha, Zener Sejfijaj https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2460 Recognition of Automated Hand-written Digits on Document Images Making Use of Machine Learning Techniques 2021-06-10T00:15:35-04:00 Hiral Raja hiralraja123@gmail.com Aarti Gupta aartigupta932@gmail.com Rohit Miri rohitmiri@gmail.com <p class="Text" style="text-indent: 10.2pt;"><span style="font-size: 9.0pt; line-height: 105%;">The purpose of this study is to create an automated framework that can recognize similar handwritten digit strings. For starting the experiment, the digits were separated into different numbers. The process of defining handwritten digit strings is then concluded by recognizing each digit recognition module's segmented digit. This research utilizes various machine learning techniques to produce a strong performance on the digit string recognition challenge, including SVM, ANN, and CNN architectures. These approaches use SVM, ANN, and CNN models of HOG feature vectors to train images of digit strings. Deep learning methods organize the pictures by moving a fixed-size monitor over them while categorizing each sub-image as a digit pass or fail. Following complete segmentation, complete recognition of handwritten digits is accomplished. To assess the methods' results, data must be used for machine learning training. Following that, the digit data is evaluated using the desired machine learning methodology. The Experiment findings indicate that SVM and ANN also have disadvantages in precision and efficiency in text picture recognition. Thus, the other process, CNN, performs better and is more accurate. This paper focuses on developing an effective system for automatically recognizing handwritten digits. This research would examine the adaptation of emerging machine learning and deep learning approaches to various datasets, like SVM, ANN, and CNN. The test results undeniably demonstrate that the CNN approach is significantly more effective than the ANN and SVM approaches, ranking 71% higher. The suggested architecture is composed of three major components: image pre-processing, attribute extraction, and classification. The purpose of this study is to enhance the precision of handwritten digit recognition significantly. As will be demonstrated, pre-processing and function extraction are significant elements of this study to obtain maximum consistency.</span></p> 2021-05-29T01:44:16-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Hiral Raja, Aarti Gupta, Rohit Miri https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2418 The Possibility of Developing Existing Residential Buldings by Installing Photovoltaic Modules Case Study: Libya – Zuwarah 2021-06-10T00:15:35-04:00 Marim M. A. Baka belybeke1990@gmail.com Demet Irkli Eryildiz demeteryildiz@gmail.com <p class="Abstract">Libya is completely dependent on non-renewable energy sources (oil and natural gas that increase the problem of global warming) to meet its needs for electric energy. After its decline in its oil production and the destruction of some power stations, especially after 2011, the electricity sector in Libya witnessed a very significant decline, as it could not meet the needs of citizens in all sectors, including the residential sector.</p> <p class="Abstract">On the other hand, Libya has good solar radiation, as the average solar radiation at the horizontal level is 7.1 kW/m<sup>2</sup> in the coastal areas and 8.1 kilowatt / square meters in the southern regions for nine hours per day, and the estimated amount of solar energy available annually is 3.5×109 gig watt hours, which makes it one of the countries that can use solar energy to help meet the increasing demand for electrical energy, and together, this energy is not utilized sufficiently.</p> <p class="Abstract">This work aims to study the possibility of developing existing residential buildings by installing photovoltaic modules the photovoltaic modules have been integrated with existing buildings in Zuwarah city in different ways: on the building roof to perform functional role and facades for aesthetic role. After studying the existing residential buildings in the city, two samples were chosen as case studies to apply the integration of photovoltaic units to them using Sketch Up software, and the PV Syst software, to design the PV system.</p> <p class="Abstract">The study clarified the role that photovoltaic systems play in the sustainable architectural formation through their ability to achieve its rules and principles, and the possibility of developing existing residential buildings in Libya - Zuwara by integrating PV with it. As well as its contribution to solving the electricity crisis in Libya.</p> 2021-05-31T00:00:00-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Marim M. A. Baka, Demet Irkli Eryildiz https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2466 Nested Hierarchical Design Application in Production of Ceramic Glazed Floor Tiles 2021-06-07T11:48:44-04:00 O. O. Akinbobola hollyray2001@yahoo.com J. I. Achebo josephachebo@gmail.com T. B. Adeleke tundebasit123@gmail.com K. O. Obahiagbon kess.obahiagbon@uniben.edu <p>The challenges of using locally available materials in Nigeria to meet the tiles demand that will be affordable and compete favourably with imported products will no doubt not only contribute to our Gross Domestic Product but also meet the yearning of the Federal Government on her local content policy. This necessitated this study to aim at the production of ceramic floor tiles with clays modified with naturally occurring materials. An experimental method was adopted to carry out this research work. Different clay samples were purposively gotten from Mbaukwu town, Anambra State, Nigeria. Rice husk, silt, feldspar, quartz was obtained to serve as modifiers. An elaborate nested experimental design, structured as an analytical hierarchy process, and festooned with three base materials, 4-modifiers, and with replications, facilitated the achievement of the production. The nested design was developed to guide in the optimum combination of materials that will give the best yield of tiles. The base materials were used in combination with the four modifiers at different percentage levels. The tiles produced were subjected to same test in order to ascertain their behavior in terms of weather, resistance to abrasion, compatibility with mortar, water absorption, dilute acid, Sodium Hydroxide and detergent. The experimental tiles produced compete favorably with any foreign product as it was seen to match up with “Vetrified tiles” and “Gomex tile” from Italy and satisfies NIS 427: 2000. Glazed ceramic floor tiles have been successfully manufactured locally using clay and other naturally occurring materials and it has given excellent performance characteristics.</p> 2021-06-07T11:48:44-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 O. O. Akinbobola, J. I. Achebo, T. B. Adeleke, K. O. Obahiagbon https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2470 The Application of Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) to Determine the Employee Additional Salary 2021-06-09T14:32:53-04:00 Mujiono Sadikin mujiono.sadikin@mercubuana.ac.id . Darminto 41513120034@student.mercubuana.ac.id S. K. Purwanto purwanto@esaunggul.ac.id <p class="Abstract">The increasing of employee salary is one of the mechanisms to maintain the good employee performance. The decision of periodic additional salary for a certain employee is the difficult task even in some cases this is a sensitive issue. To minimize such as those problems, the fair additional salary computation performed by system can be chosen as the way out. The study presents the application of fuzzy inference system (FIS) to determine the additional salary computation. This study uses the real dataset collected from a local drinking water distribution company. The experiment results confirm that the method is feasible to be applied for this purpose. This feasibility conclusion is supported by the little deviation between manual computation results compared to FIS. For almost all cases, the FIS provides more detail results.</p> 2021-06-09T14:32:53-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mujiono Sadikin, . Darminto, S. K. Purwanto https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2380 An Augmented Variable Neighborhood Search to Solve the Capacitated Location-Routing Problem 2021-06-10T15:39:08-04:00 Alireza Mohamadi-Shad hniakan@wayne.edu Hamed Niakan hamed.niakan@gmail.com Hasan Manzour hniakan@wayne.edu <p class="Abstract">In this paper we proposed a new variable neighborhood search (VNS) for solving the location- routing problem with considering capacitated depots and vehicles. A set of capacitated vehicles, a set of depots with restricted capacities, and associated opening costs, and a set of customers with deterministic demands are given. The problem aims to determine the depots to be opened, fleet assignment to each depot, and the routes to be performed to satisfy the demand of the customers. The objective is to minimize the total costs of the open depots, the setup cost associated with the used vehicles, and transportation cost. We proposed a new VNS which is augmented with a probabilistic acceptance criterion as well as a set of efficient local searches. The computational results implemented on four well-known data sets demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is competitive with other well- known algorithms while reaching many best-known solutions and updating six best new results with reasonable computational time. Conclusions and future research avenues close the paper.</p> 2021-06-10T15:39:08-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Alireza Mohamadi-Shad, Hamed Niakan, Hasan Manzour https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2442 Cooking gas (LPG) Distribution to Rivers State Homes, Case Study: Choba Community 2021-06-11T11:59:38-04:00 Azubuike H. Amadi azubuikehopeamadi@gmail.com Gogo-Isaiah E. Uneh unehisaiah@gmail.com Onaivi C. Ene ceneonaivi@gmail.com Franklin C. Onwa onwafranklin@gmail.com Djoï N. André djoi.andrew@gmail.com <p>Liquefied Petroleum Gas has proved to be an essential source of fuel through the mild blue glowing flame it produces on ignition in the presence of oxygen. This source of heat has made it suitable for use as cooking gas. Various developed countries have been able to transport gas to homes for heating of homes and as cooking gas using grids while considering environmental conditions specific to that country. This study unveils a distribution mechanism for effectively transporting cooking gas safely to homes in Rivers State. This gas distribution plan is a one supplier strategy which could be government or private owned. Choba community was used as a choice case study because of its strategic position. Also, the gas properties such as RVP, Pressure and Temperature were analyzed together with the pipe properties. The project impacts on the major environmental components of the study area were assessed and considered. The distribution routes considered locations of present gas processing plants in Rivers State and optimized routes for transport was introduced. Local terminals to ease distribution, monitoring and safety were also included. The economic analysis of this study will show how the distribution of cooking gas to homes can increase the utilization of Nigerian gas and improve the benefits from Nigerian gas in the next 10 years.</p> 2021-06-11T11:59:37-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Azubuike H. Amadi, Gogo-Isaiah E. Uneh, Onaivi C. Ene, Franklin C. Onwa, Djoï N. André https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2474 Data on Biogas Production Quality: Evidence from the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Durrës 2021-06-12T02:36:57-04:00 Stela Sefa stelasefa@gmail.com Tania Floqi floqitania@yahoo.com Julian Sefa Juliansefa@gmail.com <p>The wastewater treatment plant (WWTPD) located in Durrës, responsible for a treatment area of 205,000 inhabitants, employs the tertiary advanced wasterwater treatment to generate biogas from activated sludge for self use. The biogas collected from the anaerobic digestion tank feed the boiler and the co-generation unit which is then transformed to power its own energy grid. In order to evaluate the quality of biogas produced by anaerobic digestion of WWTPD’s sludge, is measured the percentage of CH<sub>4</sub> and CO<sub>2</sub> from the biogas production during a three years period (2016 – 2018).</p> <p>From the performed analyses has resulted a percentage of CH<sub>4 </sub>up to 75% and 25% CO<sub>2</sub> in 2016. While the lowest percentage of CH<sub>4</sub> in 2018 with respectively 70% CH<sub>4</sub> and 30% CO<sub>2</sub>.</p> <p>Based on the value measurements, qualitative results of biogas parameters show that physicochemical and biochemical processes are performed under strict conditions and anaerobic digestion is performed according to standards.</p> 2021-06-12T02:36:57-04:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Stela Sefa, Tania Floqi, Julian Sefa