https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/issue/feed European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2019-10-17T19:59:22-04:00 Editor-in-Chief editor@ejers.org Open Journal Systems <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; 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margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org"><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org">editor@ejers.org</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jW1fB2qUlOU" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.europapublishing.org">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (iThenticate.com).</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.doi.org/">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2506-8016"><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scilit.net/pub/article/10.24018"><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=so%3AEuropean+Journal+of+Engineering+Research+and+Science&amp;qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scienceopen.com/user/3eed4386-308b-4036-abc4-d2d83df0dcdd"><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="https://www.ieee.org/conferences/publishing/templates.html">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1409 Pyramidal Microwave Absorber Design for Anechoic Chamber in the Microwave Frequency Range of 1GHz to 10GHz 2019-10-17T19:59:22-04:00 Stella Ifeoma Orakwue stella.orakwue@uniport.edu.ng Igochi Praise Onu praiseonu@gmail.com <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The design of microwave absorbers is directly correlated to the general performance of an anechoic chamber for its signal absorptive capabilities. However, the cost of importing the total required microwave absorber for the 5m × 4m × 3m proposed anechoic chamber in the University of Port Harcourt Nigeria is at the tune of twenty-seven thousand dollars. This research is carried out to simulate and fabricate the microwave absorber using polyurethane material and locally obtained carbon in order to reduce cost. The simulation is done using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) software for the desired frequency range of 1GHz to 10GHz. Simulation results proved to have good absorptive performance and reflectivity loss comparable to that of the conventional microwave absorber. The reflectivity performance is below -30dB across the desired frequency range. With the polyurethane material and locally obtained conducting carbon the estimated cost is five thousand five hundred dollars against the twenty-seven thousand dollars importation cost; thereby reducing the cost by more than 60%. </span></p> 2019-10-01T15:55:03-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Stella Ifeoma Orakwue, Igochi Praise Onu https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1543 Models of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 2019-10-08T03:49:53-04:00 E. Soto sandys@csd.uo.edu.cu N. Fernandes analiborio@gmail.com S. Sánchez lacortt@upf.br L. Leão raineynascimento@hotmail.com Z. Ribeiro dilsofilho@hotmail.com R. Ferreira iruiz2005@yahoo.es Ivan Ruiz iruiz2005@yahoo.es <p>In the present work a study of the situation that is presented in Brazil with regard to the sexually transmitted diseases is made, indicating those groups of people for which the most common certain diseases. It introduces a system of differential equations that simulates the process of transmission of different diseases, if different cases are studied that derive from the general system; the system is simplified according to the case, a qualitative study of the system of equations is presented and conclusions are drawn regarding the future situation in relation to the number of infested patients.</p> 2019-10-08T03:49:53-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 E. Soto, N. Fernandes, S. Sánchez, L. Leão, Z. Ribeiro, R. Ferreira, Ivan Ruiz https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1567 Research Method to Calculate Cutting Force when Longitudinal Feed Centerless Grinding 2019-10-09T07:49:48-04:00 Do Duc Trung doductrung@haui.edu.vn Nguyen Hong Son doductrung@haui.edu.vn Le Hong Ky doductrung@haui.edu.vn Le Hoang Anh doductrung@haui.edu.vn <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 0mm;">The paper presents the results of analyzing the relationship between cutting force components and the force components exerting on the workrest blade, the ratio of slip - acceleration of the rotation motion between the part and control wheel, translational motion acceleration of the part along the axial axis when longitudinal feed centerless grinding. From that, the method of calculating cutting force components is calculated by measuring the force components exerting on the workrest blade, the ratio of slip, cceleration of the rotation motion between the part with control wheel, translational motion acceleration of the part along the axial axis. On that basis, this research also provides orientation for the construction of a system to measure the force, acceleration, velocity components, ... Then the development direction for the next research is also mentioned in the article.</p> 2019-10-09T07:49:48-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Do Duc Trung, Nguyen Hong Son, Le Hong Ky, Le Hoang Anh https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1486 Theory of Origin of Water in the Solar System 2019-10-15T09:31:50-04:00 Mammadov Sabir Ahmedovich m.sabrikenan@rambler.ru <p>The created cosmogonic theory provides objective solutions to the problems of cosmogony - the origin of the solar system and the mechanism of the emergence of the Earth’s atmosphere and hydrosphere and four giant outer planets during the first stage, the formation of their structure by the reaction of methane and ammonia with oxygen. In the light of modern data from cosmochemistry, geochemistry, and also on the basis of fundamental theoretical research, a previously unknown new phenomenon was discovered that in the Earth’s cores and four giant outer planets there is a constant generation of organogenic chemical elements - hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen and oxygen as a result of controlled thermonuclear synthesis from helium (inherited by the predecessor of the solar system - a giant star - about 8 billion years after the Big Bang, and this also proves the origin of the Solar system and the mechanism of planetary origin. The weak intensity of thermonuclear processes is a function of the mass of these planets. This is also evidenced by their heat radiation several times more than they receive it from the sun, as well as their high electromagnetic field and the speed of revolution around its axis and endogenous activity), which explains the mechanism of occurrence of methane, ammonia, carbon dioxide and water in their magma and atmosphere during their existence and at the present time, and which also proves the cause of dehydration planet Earth. The history of the origin of life on Earth, previously erased, has been restored - as a result of the occurrence of water in its primary atmosphere and in an acid-water environment with the ozone layer of the atmosphere and as a result of the chemical and biological evolution of amino acids and proteins (based on sequentially organogenic elements arising in its primary atmosphere - hydrogen carbon in the form of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, oxygen, as well as methane and ammonia). It has been revealed that there is a constant cycle of water on the planet Earth, that is, on the one hand, there is its consumption for photosynthetic oxygen, on the other hand, it is generated from hydrogen and oxygen and from the reaction of methane and ammonia with oxygen, as well as in the respiration process of living organisms. This explains the mechanisms of the formation of natural phenomena of cyclones, typhoons, volcanoes and earthquakes during the geological history and at present.</p> 2019-10-15T09:31:50-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Mammadov Sabir Ahmedovich https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1555 Optimal Sizing and Sitting of Distributed Generation for Power Quality Improvement of Distribution Network 2019-10-15T09:56:43-04:00 Abubakar Bawa abubawa2013@gmail.com Muhammad Uthman m.uthman@yahoo.com Farouq E. Shaibu farouqebira@gmail.com Koledowo Saliu Oyewale koled112@yahoo.com <p>The Point of Common Coupling (PCC) where suppliers’ responsibility and customers demand meet is of great concern due to increase degree of voltage variation assessment; valuable indicator of system conditions (voltage profile). Unstable condition of the power system outside operational or statutory limit, an adverse effect of nonlinear loads usually generate harmonics as well as fundamental frequency voltage variations and increase rate of power losses. These loads need to be compensated for. The major concerns of utility operations is to mitigate adverse effect of this system conditions. This research work focuses on optimal siting and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) in a 43 bus distribution system. Power losses coupled with voltage deviation, considering objective function that compute present percentage losses in 11kV Dikko feeder, Abuja Electricity Distribution Company (AEDC), Suleja Distribution Network, Nigeria. We identified buses with poor voltage profile without DG installation and determined optimal sizing and siting of DGs where losses can be mitigated and power quality improved. ETAP version 12.6 2014 was used for load flow analysis to establish a decisive based case. The total load of the system considered was (3490 + j2700) kVA. Active and Reactive power losses in the system before DG installation were 246.300 kW and 289.903 kVAR respectively. DGs installation in the case study, has a considerable effects on loss reduction in the network. It is observed that 8.10% and 7.20% active and reactive power loss reduction was achieved while bus voltage improved by 0.4%. Genetic Algorithm Optimization techniques programmed in MATLAB 2015 software was used for optimal placement and sizing of the DG in the system.</p> 2019-10-15T09:56:43-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Abubakar Bawa, Muhammad Uthman, Farouq E. Shaibu, Koledowo Saliu Oyewale https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1568 Stability and Interaction Processes within Separate Magnetic and Electric Fields and Equilibrium within Electromagnetic Confinements 2019-10-17T03:01:54-04:00 Wim Vegt jvegt@planet.nl <p>The inner structure of a photon is based on a 3-dimensional anisotropic equilibrium within the electromagnetic pulses in which an equilibrium does exist for the Electric and the Magnetic Fields separately generated by the pulses. A photon cannot be considered as a particle. Because particles are 3-dimensional confinements. Photons are anisotropic (in 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> dimension a particle and in the 3<sup>rd</sup> dimension a wave) confinements of electromagnetic pulses, generated during the energy transitions within the atoms. Photons are 2-dimensional confinements of electromagnetic energy and demonstrate the property of inertia (electromagnetic mass) in the 2 directions of confinement.&nbsp; In the 3<sup>rd</sup> direction, the direction of propagation, photons can only be considered as an electromagnetic wave and for that reason do not demonstrate the property of inertia. Electromagnetic waves cannot be accelerated or decelerated because the speed of light is a universal constant. For that reason, photons interact with a gravitational field in an anisotropic way. Due to a gravitational field, photons can be accelerated or decelerated in the directions perpendicular to the direction of propagation and follow a curved path. But a gravitational field in the direction of propagation will have no impact on the speed of the photons, which will remain the unchanged universal constant, the speed of light.&nbsp; Photonics&nbsp;is the&nbsp;physical science of light based on the concept of “photons” introduced by Albert Einstein in the early 20<sup>th</sup> century. Einstein introduced this concept in the “particle-wave duality” discussion with Niels Bohr to demonstrate that even light has particle properties (mass and momentum) and wave properties (frequency). That concept became a metaphor and from that time on a beam of light has been generally considered as a beam of particles (photons). Which is a wrong understanding. Light particles do not exist. Photons are nothing else but electromagnetic complex wave configurations and light particles are not like “particles” but separated electromagnetic wave packages, 2-dimensionally confined in the directions perpendicular to the direction of propagation and in a perfect equilibrium with the radiation pressure and the inertia of electromagnetic energy in the forward direction, controlling the speed of light. This new theory will explain how electromagnetic wave packages demonstrate inertia, mass and momentum and which forces keep the wave packages together in a way that they can be measured like particles with their own specific mass and momentum. All we know about light, and in generally about any electromagnetic field configuration, has been based only on two fundamental theories. James Clerk Maxwell introduced in 1865 the “Theory of Electrodynamics” with the publication: “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field” and Albert Einstein introduced in 1905 the “Theory of Special Relativity” with the publication: “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” and in 1913 the&nbsp; “Theory of General Relativity” with the publication ”Outline of a Generalized Theory of Relativity and of a Theory of Gravitation”. However, both theories are not capable to explain the property of electromagnetic mass and in specific the anisotropy of the phenomenon of electromagnetic mass presented e.g. in a LASER beam. To understand what electromagnetic inertia and the corresponding electromagnetic mass is and how the anisotropy of electromagnetic mass can be explained and how it has to be defined, a New Theory about Light has to be developed. A part of this “New Theory about Light”, based on Newton’s well- known Equation in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton’s 4-dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell equations and Newton’s law in the 4<sup>th</sup> dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non-relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation.</p> 2019-10-17T03:01:54-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Wim Vegt https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1489 Plate Bending Spline Finite Strip Models Using Mixed Formulation and Combined Spline Series 2019-10-17T07:17:33-04:00 Abdarrhim Mohammed Ahmed eng.abdarrhim@gmail.com Saleh Y. Barony Saleh.barony@academy.edu.ly <p>As Classical and Spline finite strip method based on stiffness and mixed variational formulation principle become important tool for continuum structural analysis , especially in the field of plate bending problems , a lot of researches has been focused on interpolation functions in order to improve the efficiency and increase the reliability of the method. The main objective of this paper is to introduce and propose a new spline interpolation function in the light of combination techniques of basic splines through introduction and brief review of previous studies in this field. This work which uses abbreviated form of augmented matrix proposed by authors published in past time , reveals a very good accordance results compared with the analytical and published solutions of different plate bending problems.</p> 2019-10-17T07:17:32-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Abdarrhim Mohammed Ahmed, Saleh Y. Barony https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1509 The Comparative Analysis of a Vision Based HGR System Used for Handicapped People 2019-10-17T07:28:33-04:00 Rushikesh Tukaram Bankar rushikesh.baankar@gmail.com Suresh Salankar suresh.salankar@gmail.com <p>The object tracking is critical to visual / video surveillance, analysis of the activity and gesture recognition. The major difficulties to be occurred in the visual tracking are different environmental conditions, illumination changes, occlusion and appearance. In this paper, the comparative analysis of the different systems which are used to recognize the head gestures under different environmental conditions is discussed. The existing algorithm used to recognize the head gestures has some limitations. The existing algorithm cannot work under outdoor environmental conditions. The traditional camshift algorithm and unscented kalman filter are integrated and used to recognize the head gestures under outdoor environmental conditions. The unscented kalman filter is a tracking algorithm used to remove the limitations of the traditional camshift algorithm. The simulation result shows the better performance of the improved algorithm than the traditional camshift algorithm.</p> 2019-10-17T07:28:33-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Rushikesh Tukaram Bankar, Suresh Salankar https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1581 A 2x2 Millimeter-Wave Microstrip Antenna Array for 5G Applications 2019-10-17T07:45:51-04:00 G. Viswanadh Raviteja tejar512@gmail.com <p>In this paper, microstrip antenna array is designed and simulated for 5G applications. The array was designed with the intent to cover the millimeter-wave spectrum at 27GHz frequency. The substrate used in this antenna construction is Rogers RT Duroid 6002 with a loss tangent of 0.0012 and dielectric constant 2.94. The idea behind this research is to design antenna array for 5G systems able to operate in the frequency band of 24.25 – 27.5 GHz. Initially, a conventional antenna is designed. Thereby 2X1 microstrip antenna is designed and finally, a 2X2 antenna array is designed. In each stage, the antenna parameters such as S11 parameter, gain, and VSWR are calculated. Comparisons are also drawn concerning the directivity of the three antenna configurations discussed. For the end design which involves a 2X2 microstrip antenna array, the S11 is calculated to be -31.94 dB at the frequency of 26.78 GHz. The gain achieved was 11.02 dB and the directivity is found to be 11.12 dB. All the important findings from the simulations performed are tabulated.</p> 2019-10-17T07:45:51-04:00 Copyright (c) 2019 G. Viswanadh Raviteja