European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2020-06-03T08:36:41-04:00 Editor-in-Chief Open Journal Systems <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Impact Factor</strong> : 0,69</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Monthly</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Country of Origin:</strong> Belgium</button></td> <td align="right" valign="bottom" width="20%" height="70px">&nbsp;<img src="/upload/documents/new10_e0.gif" alt="gif" border="0"></td> <td align="left" valign="bottom" height="125px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Rogowski Coils for Design of Energy Meters for Nigeria Power Market 2020-06-02T09:46:16-04:00 John Paul I. Iloh <p>Proper metering of electricity consumption is the optimal way for effectively recovering revenues for power supplied to the consumers by the distribution companies (DISCOs). In Nigeria, the situation is quite problematic due to inadequate metering of the consumers. As a result, huge amount of revenues due to the DISCOs are left uncollected leaving the DISCOs to resort to estimated billing system. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a locally made digital energy meter built from locally available materials in Nigeria. Specifically, this work proposes to use an inexpensive rogowski coil wound from made-in-Nigeria wire on an improvised air core material as the current sensing element to be used in the meter. Two rogowski coil samples wound from SWG 36 and SWG 25 wires having resistances of 50ohm and 1.3 Ohms respectively were subjected to repeated experimental tests in order to study their characteristic behavior under varying load current scenarios. The results obtained were used to characterize the coils behaviors by using the basic fitting tool in MATLAB graphing window to generate the optimal equation representing the coils’ behaviors.&nbsp; The equations so obtained are intended to be used to program the microcontroller for implementation of the Digital Energy Meter algorithm adopted in the proposed design. Results from the experiment showed that the coil with lower resistance exhibited better linear response while the coil with higher resistance was better optimized by quadratic and cubic polynomials. These findings serve as design guide for local fabrication of the rogowski coils to be used in the proposed digital energy meter being developed for the Nigerian power market.</p> 2020-06-02T09:46:16-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 John Paul I. Iloh The World Beyond Black Holes 2020-06-02T11:05:47-04:00 Wim Vegt <p>To understand the physics of Black Holes, it is important to understand the first law in Physics which controls our entire universe. This is the law of “Perfect Equilibrium”. Within the entire universe there is always a prefect equilibrium between all the physical forces like gravity, forces of inertia, radiation pressure and Electro-Magnetic Interaction forces at any time, in any direction and at any space coordinate. This is the fundamental law in physics on which also the existence of a Black Hole has been grounded. This new theory will explain the forces within a beam of light interacting with gravity while the beam of light propagates within the gravitational field generated by a black hole. When we look at modern Physics, we can only be impressed by an enormous amount of knowledge and a complete New World of technical applications. We now live in the century of the impressive victory of the new science and the new technology over the old-fashioned world and the old-fashioned way of thinking. Great shifts in the way of thinking and the technological achievements are mostly characterized by an important scientific publication in a century that changes everything in that century. We can recognize the century of Isaac Newton who triggered in 1687 the seismic shift in thinking with his famous publication “Philisophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). We recognize the century of James Clerk Maxwell who triggered in 1865 the large shift in thinking with his famous publication “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field”. We recognize the century of Albert Einstein who triggered in 1905 the large changings in thinking with his famous theory of Special Relativity represented in his publication “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”. Manifesting a “New Theory” and a “New Way of Thinking” with important contributions of Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré and Hermann Minkowski. It is recognizable that with the sudden change in thinking in a new period, a new kind of mutual common sense and a general agreement by many scientists of the new theory and the new way of thinking arises. The “New Theory” will be protected by common sense and mutual agreement. This new way of thinking settles down in the scientific society and become immovable. Other options disappear and simply do not exist anymore. Which will make it almost impossible for the following “New Theory” to rise. The “New Theory” which will be introduced in this article has been based on the fundamental principle of “Perfect Equilibrium within the Universe”. A fundamental universal principle in Physics which has already been expressed by Newton’s famous 3 equations, published in 1687 in “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton’s famous Equations in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton’s 4-dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell Equations and Newton’s law in the 4th dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non-relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation.</p> 2020-06-02T11:05:47-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Wim Vegt Development, Kinematic Modeling and Analysis of 3 (DoF) Pneumatic Gantry Robot 2020-06-02T11:56:02-04:00 Awad Eisa G. Mohamed Abuobeida Mohammed Elhassan <p>Low friction pneumatic cylinders are now being considered in applications for which only electric motors or hydraulics were previously considered suitable. One potential application of low friction pneumatics is robotic for metallurgical operations where the high power to weight ratio and low cost could be exploited. As part of an ongoing project to develop a pneumatic robot, this paper presents the kinematic analysis of pneumatic cylinder characteristics that simplifies controller design. Using mathematical modeling and simulation, non-linearity of modern pneumatic systems have been investigated. The derived models give an excellent representation of the system, despite the inclusion of a simplified friction model.</p> 2020-06-02T11:56:02-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Awad Eisa G. Mohamed, Abuobeida Mohammed Elhassan Machine learning Clustering Algorithms Based on the DEA Optimization Approach for Banking System in Developing Countries 2020-06-02T15:28:42-04:00 Mirpouya Mirmozaffari Azam Boskabadi Gohar Azeem Reza Massah Elahe Boskabadi Hamidreza Ahady Dolatsara Ata Liravian <p>Machine learning grows quickly, which has made numerous academic discoveries and is extensively evaluated in several areas. Optimization, as a vital part of machine learning, has fascinated much consideration of practitioners. The primary purpose of this paper is to combine optimization and machine learning to extract hidden rules, remove unrelated data, introduce the most productive Decision-Making Units (DMUs) in the optimization part, and to introduce the algorithm with the highest accuracy in Machine learning part. In the optimization part, we evaluate the productivity of 30 banks from eight developing countries over the period 2015-2019 by utilizing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). An additive Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model for measuring the efficiency of decision processes is used. The additive models are often named Slack Based Measure (SBM). This group of models measures efficiency via slack variables. After applying the proposed model, the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) is computed to evaluate the productivity of companies. In the machine learning part, we use a specific two-layer data mining filtering pre-processes for clustering algorithms to increase the efficiency and to find the superior algorithm. This study tackles data and methodology-related issues in measuring the productivity of the banks in developing countries and highlights the significance of DMUs productivity and algorithms accuracy in the banking industry by comparing suggested models.</p> 2020-06-02T15:28:42-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Mirpouya Mirmozaffari, Azam Boskabadi, Gohar Azeem, Reza Massah, Elahe Boskabadi, Hamidreza Ahady Dolatsara, Babak Alizadeh, Ata Liravian Review of Multilevel Inverters and Their Control Techniques 2020-06-03T08:36:41-04:00 Ibrahim Emmanuel Tashiwa Gyang Davon Dung Stephen Adole Benson <p>Multi-level inverter is attaining higher AC power using a series of power semiconductor switches with numerous lower voltage DC sources to implement the power conversion by synthesizing a staircase voltage waveform. Sources like super capacitors, batteries, solar panels and other renewable energy voltage sources make up the multiple DC voltage sources. This work looks at the advantages and likely disadvantage of multi-level inverter, highlighting some of the shortfalls of existing inverter topologies while considering the effects of emerging Hybrid MLI Topologies. Hence this review paper proposes a distinctive seven level cascaded H-bridge multi-level inverter configuration in which the POD PWM technique is adopted. This design would potentially redress the problems inherent in other inverter circuit topologies reviewed.</p> 2020-06-03T08:36:41-04:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Ibrahim Emmanuel Tashiwa, Gyang Davon Dung, Stephen Adole Benson