European Journal of Engineering Research and Science https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Impact Factor</strong> : 0,69</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Monthly</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Country of Origin:</strong> Belgium</button></td> <td align="right" valign="bottom" width="20%" height="70px">&nbsp;<img src="/upload/documents/new10_e0.gif" alt="gif" border="0"></td> <td align="left" valign="bottom" height="125px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org"><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org">editor@ejers.org</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jW1fB2qUlOU" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.europapublishing.org">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (iThenticate.com).</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.doi.org/">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2506-8016"><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scilit.net/pub/article/10.24018"><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=so%3AEuropean+Journal+of+Engineering+Research+and+Science&amp;qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scienceopen.com/user/3eed4386-308b-4036-abc4-d2d83df0dcdd"><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="https://www.ieee.org/conferences/publishing/templates.html">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2506-8016 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> The Control of Squirrel-Cage Induction Electromotor with Constant Magnetization Current https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1265 <p>In this paper, we study the control algorithm of electromagnetic torque and rotation speed of squirrel-cage induction electromotor with constant magnetization current. We can ensure the constant magnetization current by acting on stator voltage vector. We distinguish two methods of construction of the given magnetization current. The first method is based on variation of stator voltage amplitude from the information just of rotor rotation speed. The second method is based on the stator voltage frequency and amplitude from the stator current information. The second method permits to influence the characteristic equation roots of the control system and to have magnetization current dynamic properties.</p> Frederic Biya Motto Roger Tchuidjan Benoît Ndzana Colince Tchinda Tatsa Copyright (c) 2019 Frederic Biya Motto, Roger Tchuidjan, Benoît Ndzana, Colince Tchinda Tatsa http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 4 5 1 4 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1265 Genetic Feature Construction Genetic Feature Construction: a parallel implementation of a genetic programming tool for feature construction https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1272 <div class="abstract"><a id="magicparlabel-2163"></a> <div class="abstract_item">In this paper a parallel implementation of a recently introduced method for feature construction is described. This technique utilizes parallel genetic algorithms along with RBF neural networks to create new features from the original ones by discovering the hidden relations between patterns. The method is tested on series of classification problems from a variety of areas and the results are reported. The accompanied software is written entirely in ANSI C++ using the well established MPI library for parallelization.</div> </div> Ioannis G Tsoulos Alexandros Tzallas Dimitrios Tsalikakis Copyright (c) 2019 Ioannis G Tsoulos, Alexandros Tzallas, Dimitrios Tsalikakis http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 4 5 5 11 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1272 Farmers Establishment Impact on the Forest Dynamic of Monogaga Protected Forest, in the Southwest of Côte d’Ivoire: Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) Approach https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1230 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The deforestation is a major problem in Côte d’Ivoire. Monogaga protected forest is strongly cleared for agriculture. Thus, the research aims to determine the influence of the farmer’s occupancies on the forest dynamic. The supervised classification by Neural net has been applied with success to Landsat imagery of 1986 and 2017. It has been preceded by the vegetation physiognomic characterization. The vegetation units are the closed forest, the degraded forest and the fallow-crops. The neural Net classification has been used to discriminate the closed forest area. To the dynamic level, the loss of closed forest proportion between 1986 and 2017 is 86.52%. The annual deforestation rate in regular (linear) and irregular (exponential) level is respectively 2.88% and 6.46% on 30 years. The anthropogenic units descended of the degradation represent some more 90 % of land cover, with a contribution of the crops at more than 40%. These same units are also implied in regeneration to a proportion of some more 90%, always with the crops proportion of 60%. Several mutations are in use. It’s the degradation, conservation and regeneration, with a predominance of degradation. The result shows the bad conservation. This survey showed that the protected forest is submitted to agricultural pressure and all other anthropogenic activities. It is important to have a forest conservation politics and more efficient management.</span></p> Douffi Kouakou Guy-Casimir Moussa Koné Kouadio I. Kouassi Yao J. N’Guessan Adama Bakayoko Copyright (c) 2019 Douffi Kouakou Guy-Casimir, Moussa Koné, Kouadio I. Kouassi, Yao J. N’guessan, Adama Bakayoko http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-06 2019-05-06 4 5 12 20 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1230 Application of Expert Methods for Predicting Liquidus Temperature of TIG Weldments https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1263 <p>Liquidus temperature is regarded as the minimum temperature required for an alloy to completely transform into the liquid state. Uncontrolled temperature leads to excessive heat generated in the material which create wider heat affected zone, alters the microstructure of the material and also induce residual stresses in the material. Optimizing this process is one sure way of producing a quality weld. In this study, the application of expert systems such as response surface method to optimize the liquidus temperature was pursued. The central composite design matrix was employed to collect data from the sets of experiments. The specimen was made from mild steel plates and welded with the tungsten inert gas process. The result of the response surface method shows that current has a very strong influence on the liquidus temperature. The model for optimizing liquidus temperature has a P-value &lt; 0.0001. The model developed had a very high noise to signal ratio (S/N). Finally, the numerical solution obtained shows that a current of 130Amp, a voltage of 20.94volts, and a speed of 0.48m/min produced a result with liquidus temperature of 1365.05<sup>o</sup>C.</p> F. O. Uwoghiren A. Ozigagun Tunde Basit Adeleke Copyright (c) 2019 F. O. Uwoghiren, A. Ozigagun, Tunde Basit Adeleke http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-08 2019-05-08 4 5 21 25 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1263 Cardinal Points Symmetry Landmarks Distribution Model for Segmentation of Region of Interest in Simulated B-Mode Ultrasound Carotid Artery Images https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1243 <p class="Abstract">Measurement accuracy and understanding of geometry of Common Carotid Artery (CCA) play an important role in carotid atherosclerosis assessment and management. In order to device techniques that can accurately analyze the effects of plaques on the carotid artery, a model that can sufficiently segment the Region of Interest (ROI) in the B-mode ultrasound image of carotid artery is needed. In this paper, a new Cardinal Points Symmetry Landmarks Distribution Model (CPS-LDM) to sufficiently segment the ROI in the carotid artery B-mode ultrasound imaged in the transverse plane is developed. The developed model employs a combination of fixed landmarks (FLs) and movable landmarks (MLs) to obtain the total landmarks (TLs) that can sufficiently segment the shape of the ROI of the carotid artery. Simulated ultrasound images are used. Four FLs are fixed on each of the four ROIs of the simulated carotid artery determined by the cardinal points North (N), South (S), East (E) and West (W) drawn on the ROIs of the carotid artery. The MLs are determined by the inter-cardinal directions such as North-East (NE), North-West (NW) and so on. The CPS-LDM equation developed allows us to visualize graphically the optimum number of points that can sufficiently segment the ROIs. ImageJ2 software was used to generate the Cartesian coordinates for each landmark which were then used to generate the Shape Space Pattern (SSP) of the carotid artery ready for further statistical analysis. The results showed that the CPS-LD model is sufficiently generic and adaptable to a variety of carotid artery B-mode ultrasound image simulated under different scenarios</p> Charles Nnamdi Udekwe Akinlolu Adediran Ponnle, Dr Copyright (c) 2019 Charles Nnamdi Udekwe, Akinlolu Adediran Ponnle, Dr http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-10 2019-05-10 4 5 26 33 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1243 A Framework of ICT Implementation on Higher Educational Institution with Data Mining Approach https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1233 <p>As the fundamental block of the modernised society, Information and Communication Technology (ICT), has brought changes in the principles and procedures of nearly all endeavours in education. The comprehensive changes in (ICT) have evolutionary effect on higher educational institutions on their domains of knowledge application. Hence integration of ICT is of great demand for improving efficiency of such institutions. Reports on researches reveal that the use of ICT makes students more involved in the process of learning than that with the conventional methods of learning. Therefore, it is necessary to concentrate more on implementing ICT in higher education in the view of providing easily available, inexpensive and high quality education. This paper proposes the design of ICT in higher educational institutions. On the other hand, a Sensible Data Mining (SDM) is designed by integrating both the data mining and technology for visualisation in order to apply it on the evaluation system of higher education. A sensible atmosphere can be provided for users using SDM throughout the entire steps involved in evaluation.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Rohit Raja Sumati Pathak, Mrs. Vaibhav Sharma Ramya Laxmi K. Copyright (c) 2019 Rohit Raja, Sumati Pathak, Mrs., Vaibhav Sharma, Ramya Laxmi K. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-13 2019-05-13 4 5 34 38 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1233 Flux Optimization in Reverse Osmosis via the Solution-Diffusion Model https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1267 <p>This paper suggests a new method of predicting flux values at reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants.&nbsp; The study is initiated by using the solution-diffusion model that is applied to the groundwater source at Abqaiq plant (500 RO plant) at Saudi Aramco, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia in order to calculate the osmotic pressure of the treated water for Shedgum/Abqaiq groundwater. For modelling purposes, the same technique is used to determine the osmotic pressure drops at the same plant configuration and operating conditions when using seawater sources such that of Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea waters. High rejection brackish water RO (BWRO) element Toray TM720D-400 with 8" is the RO membrane type that is used at Abqaiq plant. The calculated osmotic pressures of the three water sources, assuming that they are all treated at Abqaiq plant, are utilized to determine the appropriate flux values as well as membrane resistances of different BWRO Toray membranes. Values of numerous parameters such as water permeability constant, applied pressure, gas constant, water temperature, water molar volume and membrane thickness, water salinity/TDS are taken into account to develop our calculations through the solution-diffusion model. A comparison between low-pressure, standard and high-pressure BWRO Toray membranes performance have been established to select the ideal membrane type for the treatment of water from various sources at Abqaiq plant. The model results confirm an inverse relationship between the membrane thickness and the water flux rate. Also, a proportional linear relation between the overall water flux and the applied pressure across the membrane is identified. Higher flux rates and lower salinity indicate lower membrane resistance which yields to the higher water production. Modelled data predict that BWRO Toray TM720D-440 with 8" membrane is the optimal BWRO membrane choice for the three water sources at Abqaiq plant.</p> Hisham A. Maddah Copyright (c) 2019 Hisham A. Maddah http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-13 2019-05-13 4 5 39 44 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1267 Design of an Electronic Student Identification System Using RFID https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1268 <p>This project is based on designing of student identification system using RFID i.e. Radio Frequency Identification which is to fulfill broad range of purposes, least being an electronic student identification system focuses on academic and monitoring purposes, more also to address the problem when using the paper as student attendance such as cheating. The work provided the alternative way of interfacing a tag and a reader to get code of student’s card (tag) to compare with the database in Access, which is developed using Visual Basic 6.0 to make the database easier to access. When a student swipes his card on the reader, his information like student’s name, registration number, level, sex, and date of birth will show on interface if the code matched with database.</p> Farouq Eneuma Shaibu Tashiwa Emmanuel Ibrahim Felix Ale Copyright (c) 2019 Farouq Eneuma Shaibu, Tashiwa Emmanuel Ibrahim, Felix Ale http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-14 2019-05-14 4 5 45 49 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1268 Experience from ISM Code as Implementation Model for the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1082 <p>The International Safety Management Code (ISM Code) and the Maritime Labour Convention (MLC), 2006 are international regulatory instruments to provide standards for the safe management and operation of ships, protection of marine environment, and setting fort minimum working requirements for the welfare and working conditions of seafarers. For the ISM Code, its effective implementation depends mostly on the competence and continued commitment and motivation of individuals at all levels, and the outcome envisages the enhancement of a safety culture throughout the shipping industry. This paper attempts to establish correlations between the ISM Code and the MLC, 2006 in the provisions on objectives, legislative requirements, Flag State responsibilities, Port State responsibilities, health and safety protection, accident prevention and safety management, regular inspections and analysis of non-conformities and qualifications of seafarers. Based on these, a model to enhance the implementation of the MLC, 2006 by the relevant stakeholders in the maritime sector is developed patterned on the multi-stage model of the workings of the ISM Code developed by Trapford (2009). Although not very exhaustive, the literature reviewed on the experience of the ISM Code and the model proposed could reasonably apply for MLC, 2006 as the notions, goals and objectives of the both codes are anchored on the development of a safety culture – one emphasizing safe management culture and the other safe working conditions and welfare of the seafarers.</p> Icho Seimokomoh Igwe Ezenwa Alfred Ogbonnaya Tolumoye John Ajoko ThankGod Moni Ombe Copyright (c) 2019 Icho Seimokomoh Igwe, Ezenwa Alfred Ogbonnaya, Tolumoye John Ajoko, ThankGod Moni Ombe http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-15 2019-05-15 4 5 50 57 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1082 Mitigation of CO2 Emissions in Transportation and Industrial Processes using Renewable Energy Technologies https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1118 <p>This study focuses on the mitigation of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions in transportation and industrial processes using renewable energy technologies.&nbsp; Carbon dioxide is a colourless, tasteless and odourless gas readily available in the earth’s atmosphere, produced naturally by all aerobic organisms. Increased human activities had created a huge gap between the volume of CO<sub>2 </sub>emitted into the environment and that absorbed by oceans and vegetations. Globally, the transportation sector has contributed more than seven billion, seven hundred and thirty-eight million metric tons of carbon dioxide from fuel combustion since 2015, while industrial processes also generate greenhouse gas emissions during chemical or physical transformation of raw materials from one state to another in their conversion into finished goods. Analysis suggested that the world can achieve 90% of the reduction in CO<sub>2</sub> emissions needed to be within the Paris Agreement via an accelerated deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency, with the remaining 10% met by other low-carbon solutions.</p> Toluwanimi Oluwadara Akinyemi Olayinka John Ramonu Copyright (c) 2019 Toluwanimi Oluwadara Akinyemi, Olayinka John Ramonu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 4 5 58 66 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1118 Exergetic and Energetic Analysis of a Traditional Semi-Industrial Comorian Ylang-Ylang Essential Oil Wood Fire Distiller https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1256 <p>In this article a study of the energy performance of a distillation system of ylang-ylang essential oil on a wood fire was carried out. To do this an analysis using the first and the second low of thermodynamics was made for each component of the distillation system. &nbsp;The analysis showed that the energy efficiency depends on the fration of oil to be distilled and that the whole system is very deficient. The exergetic and energetic analysis shows that it is in the combustion chamber that has a large amount of destroyed exergy and a strong energetic loss. The velocity of the air entering at the combustion chamber greatly influences the efficiency of the chamber. Indeed it has been found that the destruction of the exergy increases with the velocity of the air incoming air.</p> Malik El'Houyoun Ahamadi Abderemane Saindou Hery Tiana Rakotondramiarana Copyright (c) 2019 Malik El'Houyoun Ahamadi, Abderemane Saindou, Hery Tiana Rakotondramiarana http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-16 2019-05-16 4 5 67 75 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1256 Comparison between Regenerator Model and the Instantaneous Direct Solar Radiation for Port Harcourt https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1246 <p>This paper compares the result generated by the Regenerator technique and the Ideriah’s method for instantaneous solar radiation. It considered the generation of the actual power input from the regenerator. The actual power input to the photovoltaic panel was calculated from a power model derived from the regenerator’s standard power that is nominally provided, regenerator material and reflectivity of the material. The amount of visible radiation absorbable by photovoltaic plates was further derived in the model and a value of 0.386P<sub>i</sub> was obtained. The Ideriah’s model was used to calculate global solar radiation from extraterrestrial solar radiation. It utilized the concept of transmittance to arrive at the amount of insolation received locally (i.e. at the point of interest). It also calculated the amount of insolation at optical thicknesses (Air mass values) representing top of the hour from 5.0am to 7.0pm. Comparison &amp; result showed that the regenerator model gave 84% to 97% correctness or an approximated average correctness of 94% when compared to the Ideriah’s model. Chi-square was used to test the relationship between the results. Chi-square results showed a high level of significance in the similarity of the results obtained. Python software was used to simulate the results and graph presentation.</p> Rex kemkom Chima Amadi F. J. K. Ideriah B. Nkoi Copyright (c) 2019 Rex kemkom Chima Amadi, F. J. K. Ideriah, B. Nkoi http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-18 2019-05-18 4 5 76 79 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1246 Evaluation of Oil Desorption from Shale and Sandstone by Surfactant Solutions with Implication to Oily Drillcuttings Decontamination https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1277 <p>In this paper, batch experiments of shale/sandstone aqueous systems were conducted to evaluate desorption of spiked oil from shale and sandstone using surfactant solutions. The desorption experimental study was designed to determine if selected surfactants in aqueous solutions with varying pH, initial oil on shale/sandstone, surfactant concentrations, surfactant type, solid/liquid ratio, with and without sonication and at different contact time could enhance the desorption of spiked oil (Sarapar147) from pre-spiked shale and sandstone. The experiments tested the influence of the selected variables in batch experiments. The early screening results obtained for sandstone and shale show that sandstone are very much easier to clean than shales. Furthermore, the desorption efficiencies was lower for water compared to surfactant solutions particularly for sandstones.&nbsp; Nevertheless, ultrasound was able to improve the desorption efficiencies for sandstone washings but not for shale washings. In the other hand, the results of the full factorial experiments showed that the variations of solution pH, mechanical interruption by ultrasound, and prolonged desorption times did not significantly improve the desorption process. These results give strong evidence to the existence of a considerable and irreversibly bound fraction of oil to shale.</p> Mazen Ahmed Muherei Copyright (c) 2019 Mazen Ahmed Muherei http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-19 2019-05-19 4 5 80 87 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1277 Performance Benchmarking of Water Supply Systems in Kandahar City using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1313 <p>Two Water Supply Systems (WSSs) have been operating and providing drinking water services to two discrete districts, namely, Second Ayno Maina (AM-WSS), District 10, owned and managed by a private sector: AFCO Corporation, and Central Kandahar (CK-WSS), Share-Naw, District 2, owned and managed by government entity: Department of Kandahar Water Supply and Sewerage, for ten and four years respectively. Both the WSSs use groundwater as source of drinking water, and due to overpopulation and urbanization, they tend to expand their services and improve their performances, despite the fact that the primary step to do so is the performance assessment of the existing systems, lacking at the moment and needs a careful consideration. Therefore, the research study is aimed at assisting the responsible authorities of the performances being carried by their existing systems and satisfaction level of their customers against the services provided, along with their international comparisons, with similar-typed associated water supply schemes. Two sets of primary data were collected, including service-provider-driven and customer-driven, from relevant authorities and districts respectively. More specifically, for consumer-driven data collection, based on their population size, 66 and 75 questionnaires were distributed to the consumers of (AM-WSS) and (CK-WSS) respectively. Both the data set was classified as the input and output performance indicators (PIs), and was analyzed using SPSS, DEAP and Ms. Excel softwares, in compliance with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology. The findings showed that (AM-WSS) had a relative technical efficiency, te of 1 (100 %), whereas CK-WSS had a te of 0.545. As a result, CK-WSS was the only System considered and recommended for amendments. Furthermore, the analysis of the findings showed that CK-WSS needed to focus on decreasing the staff size and total expenditure by 45 % to comply with optimization. The team recommends to train their personnel and reduce the number by 45 %, and additionally recommends to collect, keep and register all the important data of the schemes, in a systematic manner, for the future needs, plans, rehabilitation, performance, and improvements of the corresponding components of their systems.</p> Mohammad Aslam Haziq Abdul Rahman Mosameem Esmatullah Muslim Rahmatullah Dost Nazir Ahmad Qani Copyright (c) 2019 Mohammad Aslam Haziq, Abdul Rahman Mosameem, Esmatullah Muslim, Rahmatullah Dost, Nazir Ahmad Qani http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-19 2019-05-19 4 5 88 97 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1313 A Factorial Study of Bottlenecks in Nigerian Petroleum Refineries https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1262 <p>Bottlenecks in the refineries lead to the disruption of refinery operations which result in production loss and time wastage. Nigerian refineries are four and they have not been able to work optimally as they have failed to produce up to their installed capacity. A lot of factors are contributing to this and are known as bottlenecks. This study was taken so as to identify those bottlenecks in the refineries with a view of making them known so that actions can be taken to tackle them and get Nigerian Refineries move from their pariah states to a welcome state. Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance (K.C.C) and Principal Component Analysis (P.C.A) which are tools in factor analysis were employed.&nbsp;&nbsp; The K.C.C helped in ranking the identified variables according to their order of importance while the PCA helped to achieve parsimony through factor reduction. The results obtained revealed that the experts ranking of the thirty two scale items were in agreement at an alpha level of 0.01 and the computed coefficient of concordance was 0.51which is substantial. The thirty two scale items were able to be reduced into mere five clusters by PCA. A lone variable cluster which was labeled creatively ‘Government interference’ came up trump and account for most of the challenges being experienced in the Refineries. Other clusters labeled creatively were Eclectic issues, organizational management, Supply Chain Architecture and Personnel Management. The import of this is that government interference needs to be removed if refineries are to work optimally and the remaining four clusters should also be looked at in order to tackle these bottlenecks. &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Tunde Basit Adeleke A. C. Igboanugo N. B. Chime Copyright (c) 2019 Tunde Basit Adeleke, A. C. Igboanugo, N. B. Chime http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-20 2019-05-20 4 5 98 101 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.5.1262