European Journal of Engineering Research and Science <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Impact Factor</strong> : 0,69</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Monthly</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Country of Origin:</strong> Belgium</button></td> <td align="right" valign="bottom" width="20%" height="70px">&nbsp;<img src="/upload/documents/new10_e0.gif" alt="gif" border="0"></td> <td align="left" valign="bottom" height="125px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2506-8016 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Protonic Magnetic Resonance Properties of the Hard Rocks Fracture Zones in the Department of Donga <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The Donga Department is located in the northwest of Benin in an area made up of crystalline and crystallophyllic basement rocks where most of the groundwater resources are found in the area of weathered and conductive fractures. The carrying out of drilling campaigns in this department are often crowned with a significant number of negative boreholes (&lt;0.7m<sup>3</sup> /h) due to the poor choice of sites for drilling. This leads to situations of difficulties in supplying drinking water, or even more frequent shortages during the dry season. The objective of this study is to use geophysical methods characterize the fractured basement areas, with a view to improving the implantations and the sustainable management of the aquifers they contain. The application of the Protonic Magnetic Resonance (PMR) method made it possible to determine the hydrogeological properties of the fracture zones.&nbsp;</span><span lang="EN-US">As a result, the determination of the hydrodynamic properties shows that the W<sub>PMR</sub>, T<sub>2</sub><sup>*</sup> and Sy values in 5 different localities of the study area are between 4 and 13% respectively, between 150 and 212.5 ms and between 2.3 and 8.2%. The minimum height of the water slide is 820 mm and the maximum height is estimated at 3672 mm for a water reserve of up to 2313 mm in the Donga gneisses. It emerges from this study that in the department of Donga the PMR water content is also a function of the particle size. T<sub>2</sub><sup>*</sup> of the fractured zone.</span></p> Euloge Nicaise Yalo Bertrand Houngnigbo Akokponhoué Marc Youan Ta Copyright (c) 2020 Euloge Nicaise Yalo, Bertrand Houngnigbo Akokponhoué 2020-02-06 2020-02-06 5 2 112 117 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1737 Camshaftless Technology on Internal Engines <p>Along with the development of internal combustion engines, camshafts have also been developed to optimize engine performance. In all types of internal combustion engines, the crankshaft is connected to the camshaft via a toothed belt, chain or pinion. When the crankshaft turns, the camshaft spins and opens and closes the intake and exhaust valve respectively. However, in this non-camshaft engine technology, each intake and exhaust valve will be integrated with an electronically controlled hydraulic pump unit. This system provides a unique ability to independently control intake and exhaust valves. For any engine load, load and discharge times can be programmed independently. The decision system is based on driving conditions, used to maximize performance or minimize fuel consumption and emissions. This allows a greater degree of control over the engine which in turn provides significant performance benefits. This article presents reviews of camshaftless technology developed by VALEO. It is a system that uses solenoid valves to open and close the valve. The solenoid valve will be mounted right on top of the valve inside the engine. The author can see that the technology using this electronic control valve will help reduce the fuel consumption of the engine.</p> Van Viet Pham Copyright (c) 2020 Van Viet Pham 2020-02-06 2020-02-06 5 2 118 123 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1663 Comparison of a Tannery that Using the Conventional Treatment of Waste Water and That Using the Recycling Method <p>The conventional treatment methods of tannery spent float is found to be not sufficient to meet the required international standers levels of liquid discharges on the other hand the establishment of the treatment unit for the physical, biological and chemical treatment of the spent float is found to be extremely high-cost process. During the life time of the tannery by using the recycling of the spent float method, there would be a great saving in the water and the chemicals as well as environment protection. The comparison of the capital cost estimates of two tanneries with the same capacity, one with the conventional treatment method (large treatment unit should be established) and the other used the recycling of the spent float process, show the advantages of using the recycling process over the conventional treatment process.</p> Rehab Ahmed Salman G. A. Gasmelseed R. S. Hassan Copyright (c) 2020 Rehab Ahmed Salman, G. A. Gasmelseed, R. S. Hassan 2020-02-08 2020-02-08 5 2 124 126 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1745 Corrosion of AISI 316 Stainless Steel Embedded in Sustainable Concrete made with Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Exposed to Marine Environment <p>This research evaluates of the electrochemical behavior of steel bars of the AISI 316 and AISI 1018 embedded in sustainable concrete with partial replacement of CPC 30R by Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) and Silica Fume (SF). The electrochemical techniques used to evaluate the corrosion were half-cell potential or E<sub>corr</sub> -ASTM C-876-15- and the Linear Polarization Resistance Technique (LPR) - ASTM G59-. E<sub>corr</sub> and I<sub>corr</sub> results indicate after more than 300 days of exposure to the marine environment (3.5% NaCl solution), a high resistance of AISI 316 steel, with E<sub>corr</sub> values lower than -200 mV indicating a 10% probability of corrosion, and a level of negligible corrosion, with values less than 0.1 µA/cm<sup>2</sup> in the three mixtures, with sustainable concrete values slightly lower. The results indicate a resistance of more of almost 100 times greater than AISI 316 steel compared to the results obtained in AISI 1018 steel.</p> Miguel Angel Baltazar-Zamora Abigail Landa-Sánchez Laura Landa-Ruiz Hilda Ariza-Figueroa Pedro Gallego-Quintana Aldo Ramírez-García René Croche Sabino Márquez-Montero Copyright (c) 2020 Miguel Angel Baltazar-Zamora, Abigail Landa-Sánchez, Laura Landa-Ruiz, Hilda Ariza-Figueroa, Pedro Gallego-Quintana, Aldo Ramírez-García, René Croche, Sabino Márquez-Montero 2020-02-09 2020-02-09 5 2 127 131 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1751 Testing Causality and Cointegration of Savings and Investment In Ghana <p>This paper sought to identify the causal relationship between saving and investment in Ghana as these econometric indicators serve as a measure for the economic development and wellbeing of developing countries. Annual time series of Saving and Investment in Ghana spanning from 1980 to 2017 were considered. First, the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and the Elliott-Rothenberg-Stock (ERS) tests are carried out to determine the integration order of saving and investment data series. The Johansen's trace and maximum eigenvalue tests for cointegration were performed to ascertain the level of cointegration which suggested a long-run relationship between the saving and investment in Ghana despite potential deviations in the short-run. Finally, the Granger Causality test suggested saving as having a causal relationship with investment, while the reverse indicated no relationship. The study, therefore, recommended intensifying saving, both at the national and household level as a crucial direction for consideration if Ghana intends to finance her investments rather than relying mostly on foreign aid.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Henry Otoo Sampson Takyi Appiah Albert Buabeng M. Apodei Copyright (c) 2020 Henry Otoo, Sampson Takyi Appiah, Albert Buabeng, M. Apodei 2020-02-10 2020-02-10 5 2 132 137 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1734 A Study on Tensile Strengths of Randomly Oriented Coir/Plantain Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Polyester (CPFRP) Composites <p>This study focuses on determining the optimum tensile strengths of randomly oriented coir/plantain hybrid fiber reinforced polyester resin composites. The control factors of volume fraction, coupling agent and coir/plantain fiber ratio were used in forming the samples. Tensile test was conducted on the samples of Coir/plantain empty fruit bunch (CEFB) hybrid fibers and coir/plantain pseudo stem (CPS) hybrid fibers reinforced polyester resin composites respectively for the optimum tensile strengths. An OKH-600 Digital Display universal Testing Machine was used for conducting tensile tests in order to establish the control factor levels quality characteristics needed to optimize the mechanical properties being investigated. The highest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ratio) for the quality characteristics was investigated by applying Taguchi robust design technique for the greater-the-better. The optimum values of the control factors were established for CEFB and CPS hybrid fibers reinforced polyester resin composites. The CEFB hybrid fibers reinforced polyester resin composites has the optimum tensile strength of while CPS hybrid fibers reinforced polyester resin composites has the optimum tensile strength of . The control factors contributed greatly to the tensile strength; and the CEFB hybrid fibers reinforced polyester resin composites are less in tension than that of CPS hybrid fiber.</p> Christian Ebele Chukwunyelu A. W. Nwosu Innocent Tochukwu Uzoghelu Copyright (c) 2020 Christian Ebele Chukwunyelu, A. W. Nwosu, Innocent Tochukwu Uzoghelu 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 5 2 138 145 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1710 A Study on Particulate Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine using a Mixture of Commercial Diesel and Biodiesel Based Palm-Oil <p>Currently, oil and gas accounts for about 60 - 80% of the world's energy. According to scientists, with the current consumption rate, this source of energy will be exhausted in the next 40-50 years; Therefore, finding alternative energy sources has become the goal of many countries. In particular, the sources of energy friendly to the environment and renewable such as wind energy, solar energy, bioenergy ... are given top priority. Biodiesel is a liquid biofuel with similar properties and can be used as a substitute for conventional diesel oil. Testing and proceeding to apply B5 and B10 fuels to vehicles will reduce the amount of toxic emissions and replace exhausted petroleum and gas sources. This paper focuses on the KDE3500T engine test bed at 50% loading to analyze and assess the emission of particulate matter and oxidized organic compounds. With different mixing ratios between commercial gasoline of 0.05 S and palm oil biodiesel from 10% to 75%. Experimental results show that the particle emission concentration decreased by about 30% from B0 to B20 and increased by about 15% from B30 to B100. While carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone increased about 2.5 times from B0 to B30 and dropped abruptly at B50, however carbonyl concentration increased by about 28% when using B75 to B100.</p> Van Viet Pham Copyright (c) 2020 Van Viet Pham 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 5 2 146 150 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1661 A Study on Technical and PM Emission Characteristics on Diesel Engines using Biodiesel Based Palm Oil <p>The transport industry is facing problems such as the exhaustion of fossil fuels and the threat of pollution from emissions from internal combustion engines. The use of alternative fuels is considered as one of the effective solutions to address the pressure on fuel prices and environmental pollution. Using biofuels is considered an emerging solution to ensure energy security in transportation and environment friendliness. Palm oil-based biodiesel is a relatively abundant fuel source and is compatible with traditional diesel engines with little change to the engine structure. The paper focuses on the possibility of using biodiesel derived from palm oil with the volume ratio of 5%, 10% and 15% on Vikyno EV2600 engine. Thereby, it will analyze and evaluate the technical features and emission level of the engine compared to traditional diesel fuel. In addition, this study is also worth the impact of the blend ratio of palm oil-based biofuel with diesel to the PM emission level of the test engine.</p> Van Viet Pham Copyright (c) 2020 Van Viet Pham 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 5 2 151 154 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1662 Opportunity and Challenge of Vietnamese Fleets in the Consideration of International Factors <p>In order to support shipping enterprises to overcome the difficult period, gradually improve the capacity and market share of goods transport of Vietnamese shipping enterprises, under the guidance of the Government and the Ministry of Transport. The Vietnam Maritime Administration researched and developed a project to improve the market share capacity of Vietnamese import and export shipping enterprises. The project focuses on two main objectives: From now to 2015, support Vietnamese shipping enterprises to overcome difficulties and restore production; In the period after 2016, step by step raise the capacity and market share of transporting import and export goods of Vietnamese shipping enterprises. The project offers a number of solutions to win the market share for Vietnamese fleets in transporting import and export goods of state corporations such as coal, minerals, food ... recommendations on financial and taxation for businesses. The Government Office and a number of other ministries agreed that it was necessary to develop a mechanism to support Vietnamese shipping enterprises to improve their market share of cargo transport in accordance with the Resolution of the 4th Conference. on the Vietnam Sea Strategy to the year 2020.</p> Thieu Sang Ha Phuoc Quy Phong Nguyen Thi Cam Huyen Nguyen Copyright (c) 2020 Thieu Sang Ha, Phuoc Quy Phong Nguyen, Thi Cam Huyen Nguyen 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 5 2 155 159 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1752 Affecting Factors to the Efficiency in the Container Shipping <p>Vietnam currently has 39 container shipping ships with a total tonnage of about 30,000 TUE; Vinalines has 11 ships. Thus, Vietnam's container fleet annually transports between 1.2 and 1.3 million TUE. Thus, compared with the total volume of imports and exports through the port each year about 18 million TUE, the container fleet of Vietnam is less than 10%. According to the report of the Vietnam Maritime Administration, up to now, Vietnam's fleet has 1,568 ships with a total tonnage of about 7.8 million tons, ranking 4th in ASEAN (after Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia) and 30th In the world. The average age of Vietnam's fleet is currently 15.6, younger than 5.2 years of the world (20.8 years old). The structure of Vietnam's fleet has also grown towards specialization, especially, Vietnam's container fleet has grown quite well from 19 ships (2013) to 39 ships (2019).</p> Manh Hung Nguyen Nghia Chung Thieu Sang Ha Copyright (c) 2020 Manh Hung Nguyen, Nghia Chung, Thieu Sang Ha 2020-02-11 2020-02-11 5 2 160 164 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1753 Primal-Dual Interior-Point Technique for Optimisation of 330kV Power System on One Variable <p>The work deal on a method for optimisation of 330KV power system load flow which excels other existing methods.This method is called, PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR-POINT TECHNIQUE for solving optimal load flow problem. As problems of load-shedding, power outages and system losses have been cause for worries, especially among the developing nations such as Nigeria, hence need for a load flow solution technique, which, this work addresses. Optimisation is achieving maximum of required and minimum of un-required and it is obtained mathematically by differentiating the objective function with respect to the control variable(s) and equating the resulting expression(s) to zero. In 330KV Power System, optimization is maximisation of real power injection, voltage magnitude and cost effectiveness, while minimization of reactive power injection, power loss, critical clearing time of fault conditions and time of load flow simulation.. This work developed a mathematical model that solves load flow problems by engaging non-negative PRIMAL variables, “S” and “z” into the inequality constraint of the load flow problems in other to transform it to equality constraint(s). Another non-negative DUAL variables “” and “v” are incorporated together with Lagrangian multiplier “λ” to solve optimisation. While solving optimisation Barrier Parameter “” which ensures feasible point(s) exist(s) within the feasible region (INTERIOR POINT). Damping factor or step length parameter “α”, in conjunction with Safety factor “”&nbsp; (which improves convergence and keeps the non-negative variables strictly positive) are employed to achieve result. The key-words which are capitalized joined to give this work its name, the PRIMAL-DUAL INTERIOR-POINT. The initial feasible point(s) is/are tested for convergence and where it/they fail(s), iteration starts. Variables are updated by using the computed step size &nbsp;and the step length parameter “α”, which thereafter, undergo another convergence test. This technique usually converges after first iteration. Primarily, this technique excels the existing methods as; it solves load flow problems with equality and inequality constraints simultaneously, it often converges after first iteration as against six or more iterations of the existing methods, its solution provides higher power generations from available capacity and minimum system loss. Example, Geregu Power Station on Bus 12 generates 0.1786p.u power from the available 0.2000p.u through the PD-IP tech. as against 0.1200p.u of the existing methods. Also it supplies 0.1750p.u with loss of 0.0036p.u as against 0.0236p.u with loss of 0.0964p.u of the existing methods. This results in 90% generation as against 60% of existing methods. Generation loss is 1.8% as against 80.3% of existing methods and availability loss of 12.5% as against 88.2% of existing. Therefore this method ensures very high system stability.</p> Chiristian I. Obinwa C. A. Nwabueze C. B. Mbachu Copyright (c) 2020 Chiristian I. Obinwa, C. A. Nwabueze, C. B. Mbachu 2020-02-12 2020-02-12 5 2 165 170 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1383 Characterizing Computation in Artificial Neural Networks by their Diclique Covers and Forman-Ricci Curvatures <p>The relationships between the structural topology of artificial neural networks, their computational flow, and their performance is not well understood. Consequently, a unifying mathematical framework that describes computational performance in terms of their underlying structure does not exist. This paper makes a modest contribution to understanding the structure-computational flow relationship in artificial neural networks from the perspective of the dicliques that cover the structure of an artificial neural network and the Forman-Ricci curvature of an artificial neural network’s connections. Special diclique cover digraph representations of artificial neural networks useful for network analysis are introduced and it is shown that such covers generate semigroups that provide algebraic representations of neural network connectivity.</p> Allen D. Parks Copyright (c) 2020 Allen D. Parks 2020-02-13 2020-02-13 5 2 171 177 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1689 Airborne System for Pipeline Surveillance Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle <p>Our work involves the development of a quadcopter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system with remote sensors onboard for monitoring oil and gas pipelines. Two Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) sensors were used for LPG gas leakage detection. The <em>Multiwii </em>software is used to control, track and simulate the 3D motion of the UAV in flight. Using this device, experimental data from field tests were analyzed with MATLAB. Results reveal that the developed system has performed as expected. Thus, our device can be used to enhance asset monitoring and operational safety in the oil industry.</p> Mbadiwe Samuel Benyeogor Adeboye Olatunbosun Sushant Kumar Copyright (c) 2020 Mbadiwe Samuel Benyeogor, Adeboye Olatunbosun, Sushant Kumar 2020-02-14 2020-02-14 5 2 178 182 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1761 Machine Learning Algorithmic Study of the Naira Exchange Rate <p>In this study, we discuss various machine learning algorithms and architectures suitable for the Nigerian Naira exchange rate forecast. Our analyses were focused on the exchange rates of the British Pounds, US Dollars and the Euro against the Naira. The exchange rate data was sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria. The performances of the algorithms were evaluated using Mean Squared Error, Root Mean Squared Error, Mean Absolute Error and the coefficient of determination (R-Squared score). Finally, we compared the performances of these algorithms in forecasting the exchange rates.</p> Ledisi Giok Kabari Marcus B. Chigoziri Joseph Eneotu Copyright (c) 2020 Ledisi Giok Kabari, Marcus B. Chigoziri, Joseph Eneotu 2020-02-17 2020-02-17 5 2 183 186 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.2.1739