European Journal of Engineering Research and Science <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; 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margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2506-8016 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Rogowski Coils for Design of Energy Meters for Nigeria Power Market <p>Proper metering of electricity consumption is the optimal way for effectively recovering revenues for power supplied to the consumers by the distribution companies (DISCOs). In Nigeria, the situation is quite problematic due to inadequate metering of the consumers. As a result, huge amount of revenues due to the DISCOs are left uncollected leaving the DISCOs to resort to estimated billing system. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a locally made digital energy meter built from locally available materials in Nigeria. Specifically, this work proposes to use an inexpensive rogowski coil wound from made-in-Nigeria wire on an improvised air core material as the current sensing element to be used in the meter. Two rogowski coil samples wound from SWG 36 and SWG 25 wires having resistances of 50ohm and 1.3 Ohms respectively were subjected to repeated experimental tests in order to study their characteristic behavior under varying load current scenarios. The results obtained were used to characterize the coils behaviors by using the basic fitting tool in MATLAB graphing window to generate the optimal equation representing the coils’ behaviors.&nbsp; The equations so obtained are intended to be used to program the microcontroller for implementation of the Digital Energy Meter algorithm adopted in the proposed design. Results from the experiment showed that the coil with lower resistance exhibited better linear response while the coil with higher resistance was better optimized by quadratic and cubic polynomials. These findings serve as design guide for local fabrication of the rogowski coils to be used in the proposed digital energy meter being developed for the Nigerian power market.</p> John Paul I. Iloh Copyright (c) 2020 John Paul I. Iloh 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 5 6 626 631 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1827 The World Beyond Black Holes <p>To understand the physics of Black Holes, it is important to understand the first law in Physics which controls our entire universe. This is the law of “Perfect Equilibrium”. Within the entire universe there is always a prefect equilibrium between all the physical forces like gravity, forces of inertia, radiation pressure and Electro-Magnetic Interaction forces at any time, in any direction and at any space coordinate. This is the fundamental law in physics on which also the existence of a Black Hole has been grounded. This new theory will explain the forces within a beam of light interacting with gravity while the beam of light propagates within the gravitational field generated by a black hole. When we look at modern Physics, we can only be impressed by an enormous amount of knowledge and a complete New World of technical applications. We now live in the century of the impressive victory of the new science and the new technology over the old-fashioned world and the old-fashioned way of thinking. Great shifts in the way of thinking and the technological achievements are mostly characterized by an important scientific publication in a century that changes everything in that century. We can recognize the century of Isaac Newton who triggered in 1687 the seismic shift in thinking with his famous publication “Philisophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica” (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). We recognize the century of James Clerk Maxwell who triggered in 1865 the large shift in thinking with his famous publication “A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field”. We recognize the century of Albert Einstein who triggered in 1905 the large changings in thinking with his famous theory of Special Relativity represented in his publication “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies”. Manifesting a “New Theory” and a “New Way of Thinking” with important contributions of Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré and Hermann Minkowski. It is recognizable that with the sudden change in thinking in a new period, a new kind of mutual common sense and a general agreement by many scientists of the new theory and the new way of thinking arises. The “New Theory” will be protected by common sense and mutual agreement. This new way of thinking settles down in the scientific society and become immovable. Other options disappear and simply do not exist anymore. Which will make it almost impossible for the following “New Theory” to rise. The “New Theory” which will be introduced in this article has been based on the fundamental principle of “Perfect Equilibrium within the Universe”. A fundamental universal principle in Physics which has already been expressed by Newton’s famous 3 equations, published in 1687 in “Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. Newton’s famous Equations in 3 dimensions will be published in this article in an extension into 4 dimensions. Newton’s 4-dimensional law in the 3 spatial dimensions results in an improved version of the classical Maxwell Equations and Newton’s law in the 4th dimension (time) results in the quantum mechanical Schrödinger wave equation (at non-relativistic velocities) and the relativistic Dirac equation.</p> Wim Vegt Copyright (c) 2020 Wim Vegt 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 5 6 632 645 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1945 Development, Kinematic Modeling and Analysis of 3 (DoF) Pneumatic Gantry Robot <p>Low friction pneumatic cylinders are now being considered in applications for which only electric motors or hydraulics were previously considered suitable. One potential application of low friction pneumatics is robotic for metallurgical operations where the high power to weight ratio and low cost could be exploited. As part of an ongoing project to develop a pneumatic robot, this paper presents the kinematic analysis of pneumatic cylinder characteristics that simplifies controller design. Using mathematical modeling and simulation, non-linearity of modern pneumatic systems have been investigated. The derived models give an excellent representation of the system, despite the inclusion of a simplified friction model.</p> Awad Eisa G. Mohamed Abuobeida Mohammed Elhassan Copyright (c) 2020 Awad Eisa G. Mohamed, Abuobeida Mohammed Elhassan 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 5 6 646 650 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1917 Machine learning Clustering Algorithms Based on the DEA Optimization Approach for Banking System in Developing Countries <p>Machine learning grows quickly, which has made numerous academic discoveries and is extensively evaluated in several areas. Optimization, as a vital part of machine learning, has fascinated much consideration of practitioners. The primary purpose of this paper is to combine optimization and machine learning to extract hidden rules, remove unrelated data, introduce the most productive Decision-Making Units (DMUs) in the optimization part, and to introduce the algorithm with the highest accuracy in Machine learning part. In the optimization part, we evaluate the productivity of 30 banks from eight developing countries over the period 2015-2019 by utilizing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). An additive Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model for measuring the efficiency of decision processes is used. The additive models are often named Slack Based Measure (SBM). This group of models measures efficiency via slack variables. After applying the proposed model, the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) is computed to evaluate the productivity of companies. In the machine learning part, we use a specific two-layer data mining filtering pre-processes for clustering algorithms to increase the efficiency and to find the superior algorithm. This study tackles data and methodology-related issues in measuring the productivity of the banks in developing countries and highlights the significance of DMUs productivity and algorithms accuracy in the banking industry by comparing suggested models.</p> Mirpouya Mirmozaffari Azam Boskabadi Gohar Azeem Reza Massah Elahe Boskabadi Hamidreza Ahady Dolatsara Ata Liravian Copyright (c) 2020 Mirpouya Mirmozaffari, Azam Boskabadi, Gohar Azeem, Reza Massah, Elahe Boskabadi, Hamidreza Ahady Dolatsara, Babak Alizadeh, Ata Liravian 2020-06-02 2020-06-02 5 6 651 658 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1924 Review of Multilevel Inverters and Their Control Techniques <p>Multi-level inverter is attaining higher AC power using a series of power semiconductor switches with numerous lower voltage DC sources to implement the power conversion by synthesizing a staircase voltage waveform. Sources like super capacitors, batteries, solar panels and other renewable energy voltage sources make up the multiple DC voltage sources. This work looks at the advantages and likely disadvantage of multi-level inverter, highlighting some of the shortfalls of existing inverter topologies while considering the effects of emerging Hybrid MLI Topologies. Hence this review paper proposes a distinctive seven level cascaded H-bridge multi-level inverter configuration in which the POD PWM technique is adopted. This design would potentially redress the problems inherent in other inverter circuit topologies reviewed.</p> Ibrahim Emmanuel Tashiwa Gyang Davon Dung Benson Stephen Adole Copyright (c) 2020 Ibrahim Emmanuel Tashiwa, Gyang Davon Dung, Stephen Adole Benson 2020-06-03 2020-06-03 5 6 659 664 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1707 Impacts of Placement of Wind Turbine Generators on IEEE 13 Node Radial Test Feeder In-Line Transformer Fuse-Fuse Protection Coordination <p>The ever increasing global demand on the electrical energy has lead to the integration of Distributed Generators (DGs) onto the distribution power systems networks to supplement on the deficiencies on the electrical energy generation capacities. The high penetration levels of DGs on the electrical distribution networks experienced over the past decade calls for the grid operators to periodically and critically asses the impacts brought by the DGs on the distribution network operations. The assessment on the impacts brought by the DGs on the distribution network operations is done by simulating the dynamic response of the network to major disturbances occurring on the network like the faults once the DGs have been connected into it. Connection of Wind Turbine Generators (WTGs) into a conventional electrical energy distribution network has great impacts on the short circuit current levels experienced during a fault and also on the protective devices used in protecting the distribution network equipment namely; the transformers, the overhead distribution lines, the underground cables and the line compensators and the shunt capacitors commonly used/found on the relatively long rural distribution feeders. The main factors which contribute to the impacts brought by the WTGs integration onto a conventional distribution network are: The location of interconnecting the WTG/s into the distribution feeder; The size/s of the WTG/s in terms of their electrical wattage penetrating the distribution network; And the type of the WTG interfacing technology used labeled/classified as, Type I, Type II, Type III and Type IV WTGs. Even though transformers are the simplest and the most reliable devices in an electrical power system, transformer failures can occur due to internal or external conditions that make the transformer incapable of performing its proper functions. Appropriate transformer protection should be used with the objectives of protecting the electrical power system in case of a transformer failure and also to protect the transformer itself from the power system disturbances like the faults. This paper was to investigate the effects of integrating WTGs on a distribution transformer Fuse-Fuse conventional protection coordination scheme. The radial distribution feeder studied was the IEEE 13 node radial test feeder and it was simulated using the Electrical Transient Analysis Program (ETAP) software for distribution transformer Fuse-Fuse protection coordination analysis. The IEEE 13 Node radial test feeder In-line transformer studied is a three-phase &nbsp;step down transformer having a star solidly grounded primary winding supplied at &nbsp;and a star solidly grounded secondary winding feeding power at a voltage of . The increase on the short circuit currents at the In-line transformer nodes due to the WTG integration continuously reduces the time coordination margins between the upstream fuse F633 and the downstream fuse F634 used to protect the transformer.</p> Kemei Peter Kirui David K. Murage Peter K. Kihato Copyright (c) 2020 Kemei Peter Kirui, David K. Murage, Peter K. Kihato 2020-06-07 2020-06-07 5 6 665 674 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1939 Uncertainty Approaches for Solving Generalized Machine Maintenance Problem <p>In this paper, the generalized machine maintenance problem is formulated as linear programming model. The objective is to maximize the percentage production hours available per maintenance cycle of each machine. &nbsp;Data in many real life engineering and economic problems suffers from inexactness. There are different approaches to deal with uncertain optimization problems. In this paper two different approaches of uncertainty, Fuzzy programming and rough interval programming approaches will be introduced. We deal the concerned problem with uncertain data in coefficients of the constraints for the two approaches. A numerical example is introduced to clarify the two proposed approaches. A comparison study between the obtained results of the two proposed approaches and the results of interval approach for Samir A. and Marwa Sh [3] will be introduced.</p> Samir Abdou Abass Asmaa S. Abdallah Marwa Shehata Elsayed Eman Massoud Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Samir Abdou Abass, Asmaa S. Abdallah, Marwa Shehata Elsayed, Eman Massoud Ahmed 2020-06-10 2020-06-10 5 6 675 682 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1813 Surface Roughness Model when Hole Turning SAE 420 Steel <p>In this paper, a study on surface roughness model when hole turning SAE 420 steel has been done. This study has been presented with three main contents. The first content is to determine the influence of some parameters on the surface roughness. The second content is to build a quadratic model showing the relationship between surface roughness with cutting velocity, depth of cut, feed rate and nose radius. The third content is to evaluate the accuracy of surface roughness model by comparing the roughness value when estimating and roughness value when testing. The development directions for further studies are also mentioned in this study.</p> Ky Hong Le Copyright (c) 2020 Ky Hong Le 2020-06-11 2020-06-11 5 6 683 688 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1966 Finite Element Analysis of Key Influence Parameters in Reinforced Concrete Exterior Beam Column Connection subjected to Lateral Loading <p>Beam column connection is the most critical zone in a reinforced concrete frame. The strength of connection affects the overall behavior and performance of RC framed structures subjected to lateral load and axial loads. The study of critical parameters that affects the overall joint performances and response of the structure is important. Recent developments in computer technology have made possible the use of Finite element method for 3D modeling and analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete exterior beam column connection subjected to lateral loading was performed in order to investigate joint shear failure mode in terms of joint shear capacity, deformations and cracking pattern using ABAQUS software. A 3D solid shape model using 3D stress hexahedral element type (C3D8R) was implemented to simulate concrete behavior. Wire shape model with truss shape elements (T3D2) was used to simulate reinforcement’s behavior. The concrete and reinforcement bars were coupled using the embedded modeling technique. In order to define nonlinear behavior of concrete material, the concrete damage plasticity (CDP) was applied to the numerical model as a distributed plasticity over the whole geometry. The study was to investigate the most influential parameters affecting joint shear failure due to column axial load, beam longitudinal reinforcement ratio, joint panel geometry and concrete compressive strength. The Finite Element Model (FEM) was verified against experimental test of exterior RC beam column connection subjected to lateral loading. The model showed good comparison with test results in terms of load-displacement relation, cracking pattern and joint shear failure modes. The FEA clarified that the main influential parameter for predicting joint shear failure was concrete compressive strength.</p> Gemechu Abdissa Diro Worku Feromsa Kabeta Copyright (c) 2020 Gemechu Abdissa Diro, Worku Feromsa Kabeta 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 5 6 689 697 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1947 Analysis of DVB-T2 and LTE Networks Co-Existence in the Digital Dividend Band in Nigeria <p>This paper, present results of the analysis of DVB-T2 and LTE network co-existence in Nigeria. The Spectrum Engineering Advanced Monte Carlo Analysis Tool (SEAMCAT) used to analyse the co-existence. The findings of the study reveals that the blocking interference is the dominant effect and to ensure that the probability of interference is below the threshold of 5%. It is mandatory to decrease the transmission power of the LTE from 196mw to 25mw. Consequently, the protection ratio for DVB-T2 and LTE should be maintained for a seamless co-existence.</p> Evans C. Ashigwuike Sadiq A. Umar Stephen O. Okpanachi Moses Copyright (c) 2020 Evans C. Ashigwuike, Sadiq A. Umar, Stephen O. Okpanachi Moses 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 5 6 698 701 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1942 An Experimental Investigation of Dynamic Properties of Fiber-Reinforced Tire-Derived Lightweight-Aggregate Concrete <p class="Abstract" style="text-indent: 0in;">This paper presents the results of an experimental study to investigate dynamic properties of polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete beams with lightweight expanded shale (ES) and tire-derived aggregates (TDA). The mixture design followed past experiences in combining ES and TDA to enhance toughness and energy absorption in flexural behavior. The new mixture also contained 2% fiber by volume to improve such properties further. Experiments included compressive testing on cylindrical specimens as well as flexural testing on rectangular specimens to verify mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced tire-derived lightweight aggregate concrete (FRTDLWAC) subject to static loading. The results of these experiments confirmed reduction of mechanical strength due to addition of TDA and improvements in flexural strength due to fiber reinforcement. The dynamic testing included non-destructive impact loads applied to flexural specimens using a standard Schmidt hammer. A high-speed camera recorded the response of the system at 200 frames per second to allow detailed observations and measurements. Interpretation of energy-based dynamic results revealed that TDA enhances energy absorption through damping in flexural behavior. Results also indicated that fiber reinforcement reduces the amount of absorbed dynamic energy, even though; it enhances the absorbed strain energy due to crack bridging effect.</p> Fariborz M. Tehrani Nazmieh A. Masswadi Nathan M. Miller Arezoo Sadrinezhad Copyright (c) 2020 Fariborz M. Tehrani, Nazmieh A. Masswadi, Nathan M. Miller, Arezoo Sadrinezhad 2020-06-15 2020-06-15 5 6 702 707 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1967 Comparative Effectiveness of Flotation Technique at Varying Conditions for Beneficiation of Itakpe and Agbaja Iron Ores <p>Itakpe and Agbaja iron ores are part of prominent iron deposits in Nigeria, yet studies on their beneficiation via froth flotation are relatively limited. Thus, this research investigated comparatively the flotation behaviour of both ores at varied pulp pH, particle size, and collector type. The ores were also examined using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Petrological, and fractional sieve size analyses. Fifty (50) kg sample each of the ores was sourced for the research. Then, size fractions (63, 75, and 125 mm) of each ore were prepared and subjected to froth flotation using different collectors; Potassium Amyl Xanthate (PAX), Sodium Ethyl Xanthate (SEX), and Oleic Acid, at varying pulp pH ranging from 9-11. From the results obtained Itakpe iron ore assayed 36.18% Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> and contains predominantly haematite, sillimanite, and quartz while Agbaja iron ore contains chiefly, quartz and haematite, and assayed 40.6% Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> alongside 1.505% P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub>. The liberation sizes of both ores lie favouraby in the range -125+75 µm. Beneficiation studies carried out revealed that significant enrichment of both ores was actualized. Thus, it was established that Itakpe iron ore is best processed using PAX at pH 11 and particle size of 125 µm yielding concentrates assaying 67.66% Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> at a recovery of ~90% while for Agbaja iron ore, PAX at pH 9 and particle size of 63 µm is considered best to yield enriched concentrates assaying 65.5% Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> at 52.5%.recovery.</p> Serah Akande Oladunni O. Alabi E. O. Ajaka Temitope Amos Olatunji Copyright (c) 2020 Sareh Akande, Oladunni O. Alabi, E. O. Ajaka, Temitope Amos Olatunji 2020-06-16 2020-06-16 5 6 708 714 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1984 Developing A Seizure Prediction Algorithm for A Non-Invasive Neuromodulator <p>In this study, a novel real-time seizure prediction algorithm is introduced to predict epileptic seizures. The proposed algorithm is expected to be applicable in a noninvasive neuromodulator. As a model of the epileptogenic zone, a small-world network of Huber-Braun neurons was built up. To assess the effects of noninvasive stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, this network was modified, and the magneto-motive forces and the electromagnetically induced currents were further applied on the network. Comprehensive investigations of the electroencephalograms of epilepsy patients have suggested that some chaotic mechanisms generate the seizures. Hence, chaos and bifurcation theory was applied, and the induced current was considered as the bifurcation parameter. The bifurcation diagram of the 'inter-spike' intervals of the mean voltage of the small world network was obtained. The precise time at which the bifurcation took place was subsequently considered as the time of the seizure onset. Comparisons of the bifurcation diagrams obtained from the patients’ electroencephalographs showed that the proposed network model could reasonably represent the actual neuronal networks of the epileptogenic zone. A dataset of the electroencephalographs of epilepsy patients and normal volunteers from an epilepsy center in Germany was used to validate the prediction algorithm. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has a significant capability to predict the precise occurrence of seizures and the achieved sensitivity, accuracy, and specificity of this approach were remarkably higher than those reported in previous studies.</p> Mahnaz Asgharpour Mehdi Sedighi Mohammad Reza Jahed Motlagh Copyright (c) 2020 Mahnaz Asgharpour, Mehdi Sedighi, Mohammad Reza Jahed Motlagh 2020-06-21 2020-06-21 5 6 715 724 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1920 A GSM Based Automatic Energy Meter Reading and Billing System <p>These instructions give you guidelines for preparing papers for An existence without electricity can't be thought of since it turns into an integral part of human life. In a developing country, people use postpaid electricity for their own purposes. Be that as it may, they don't know the amount of electricity they have consumed and how much cost they have done likewise till they receive the consumption bill at the end of the month. Also, in prepaid meters, to see consumption details, people have to go in front of the meter. In this research, a system has been designed based on GSM technology to solve this problem. The prepaid meter has to be recharged; as a result, clients can use the electricity. The system alerts the client for any kind of emergency. Besides, when the client is away from the house, he can easily switch off the supply of electricity by sending an SMS. This project will support both society and country because it helps to reduce the wastage of electricity and to check electricity consumption and bill from remote distances.</p> Mohammad Golam Mortuza Zia Uddin Ahmed Hassan Jaki Md. Razu Ahmed Mohammed Jashim Uddin Md. Humayun Kabir Copyright (c) 2020 Mohammad Golam Mortuza, Zia Uddin Ahmed, Hassan Jaki, Md. Razu Ahmed, Mohammed Jashim Uddin, Md. Humayun Kabir 2020-06-23 2020-06-23 5 6 725 730 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1963 Numerical Analysis of Adhesive Joints with Bi-Layered Adherends <p>Improvement of joint quality has always being a call for concern in an assembled component due to numerous application of such components in immense industrial sectors such as aerospace and automotive industries, electrical/electronic industries etc. With this in mind quite a vast research had been carried out and still on going to enhance the characteristics of various parts that makes up an assemble and the complete assemble itself. Part of the research carried out fixated on adhesive bonded joint of different geometrical designs such as L-shape, single-lap, double-lap, tubular, T-shaped, stepped and scarf joints etc. Focusing on single –lap joint due to the simplicity of the design geometry and their ease of fabrication, various forms of arrangement have been researched on. But owing to its untimely failure, caused by high strength concentration in the overlapping areas and some other parts that are delicate to peel damage various forms of design geometry have been adopted ranging from tapering, stepping and wavy lapping of overlapping layers in order to reduce or mitigate the stress concentration for an improved load bearing ability. Due to a lot of challenges being faced with difficulty in fabrication, this study focused on double layer single-lap joint. Its harmonic response when subjected to external dynamic loading was investigated with the use of Ansys finite element analysis. The numerical analysis was carried out on various forms of adhesive-adherends arrangement, and from the harmonic response obtained it showed that the double layer single-lap joint have improved load bearing capacity as compared with other geometrical designs.</p> Ahmed Hasan Sayegh Khalid Almitani Ramzi Othman Copyright (c) 2020 Ahmed Hasan Sayegh, Khalid Almitani, Ramzi Othman 2020-06-28 2020-06-28 5 6 731 735 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1959 An Inquisition on the Combined Effects of Ambient Temperature and Relative Humidity on The Performance of a Uniform Speed Single Shaft Gas Turbine in Tropical Monsoon Climate, using GPAL <p>This paper investigates the combined effects of Ambient Temperature and Relative Humidity on the performance of a uniform speed single shaft Gas Turbine, sited in Tropical Monsoon climate. A single shaft gas turbine simulator (known as GPAL) from Gas path Analysis ltd was employed. The City of Portharcourt, Nigeria, was chosen to represent the tropical monsoon climate, with its climatic data of monthly ambient temperature and relative humidity obtained from Koppen. With parameters like speed, reference power, inlet and exhaust losses kept constant, the ambient temperature and relative humidity were continually varied according to their climatic values. Each time, the performance of the gas turbine was simulated and parameters such as; Efficiency, Turbine power and Net power output, Turbine inlet Temperature and Exhaust Gas Temperature, as well as Specific fuel consumption were monitored. The environmental impact of the gas turbine was equally assessed in terms of Carbon (IV) Oxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) emission in Tonnes/day and in Kg/MWhr, NO<sub>X </sub>emission and Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission. The results of the study indicate that it is most efficient and productive to operate the gas turbine in Portharcourt in the months of January and December whereas it is least efficient in the month of April. Whereas CO emission was relatively low and uniform throughout the year, the highest specific fuel consumption was recorded in April.</p> Abel Edeowede Abhulimen Mathias Usman Bonet Olukayedo Oyekunle Nnorom Achara Wunuken Carlos Solomon Copyright (c) 2020 Abel Edeowede Abhulimen, Mathias Usman Bonet, Olukayedo Oyekunle, Nnorom Achara, Wunuken Carlos Solomon 2020-06-29 2020-06-29 5 6 736 744 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1946 A New Method of Calculating the Attainable Life and Reliability in Aerospace Bearings <p>The aviation industry made significant progress improving reliability, efficiency and performance throughout the last decades. Especially aircraft engines and helicopter transmission systems contributed significantly to these improvements. The kerosene consumption decreased by 70 % and the <em>CO</em><sub>2</sub> emissions due to air transport decreased by 30 % per passenger kilometer within the last 20 years. Simultaneously, the flight safety was increased with aircraft engine in-flight-shut-downs as low as 1 ppm and „unscheduled engine removals” as low as 4 ppm. Flight safety is equal to the reliability of the systems in service. Failure of these systems directly leads to exposure of human life. Among the most critical aviation systems are aircraft engines including the rolling element bearings which support the rotors. A serious damage to the aircraft engine main shaft bearings during flight requires shout-down of the engine to avoid a further damage escalation subsequently leading to engine fire. Today, it is a requirement for aircraft to operate with one engine shut down. However, each in-flight-engine-shut-down typically is connected with flight diversion or abort and immediate landing. Inflight-shut-downs translate into increased risk for passengers and crew and substantial on cost. Therefore, rolling element bearings for aircraft engines are developed – similar to other aircraft engine components – targeting a reliability of nearly 100 % over an operation time of more than 10 000 hours prior to overhaul. To achieve this requirement despite the extreme operating conditions such as high speed and temperatures occurring in gas turbines, special high-performance materials are used for the rolling bearing components which are partially integrated in surrounding engine parts like shafts and housings. These special conditions - deviating from conventional industrial rolling element bearing applications - are currently not sufficiently considered in the standardized method of calculating the bearing life per ISO 281. A new method of calculating the attainable life of rolling elements bearing in aerospace applications is presented. This method considers the special aerospace conditions and materials and thus enables a higher reliability of the theoretical analysis and life prediction.</p> Peter Gloeckner W. Sebald Copyright (c) 2020 Peter Gloeckner, W. Sebald 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 5 6 745 750 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1977 Sensitivity Based Approach for the Optimal Sizing and Allocation of Distributed Generation in a Radial Network <p>Electric power has remained a basic essential for the advancement of any nation's economy. Increasing human exercises because of innovative advancement combined with populace development has made the interest for power dramatically increasing continuously, subsequently widening the gap between power generated and the demand by the consumers. This work provides sensitivity based method for the allocation of a distributed generation in a distribution network aimed at improving the voltage profile and reduce power loss in the quest to narrow the gap between power generated and that demanded by the consumers. Using the Loss sensitivity method, a DG of 153kW was allocated to bus 5 that sees a power reduction of 46% with voltage profile improved within constraints. Voltage sensitivity index was calculated at all nodes. Bus 17 was found to have the minimum VSI. In this case DG sizes were taken in step size of 17.5kW starting from 30 kW till 170 kW at different power factors of 1.0, 0.9, 0.85, and 0.8. The DG sizes were tested at the selected power for various DG sizes. 135kW DG at unity power factor was installed. After comparing the two methods it can be concluded that loss reduction in loss sensitivity method is more and it is better in terms of selecting the optimal location for the placement of DG. For the purpose of sizing the voltage sensitivity analysis index method is a better option.</p> Paul C. Maduforo Jonas N. Emechebe Emmanuel M. Eronu Stephen Adole Benson Copyright (c) 2020 Paul C. Maduforo, Jonas N. Emechebe, Emmanuel M. Eronu, Stephen Adole Benson 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 5 6 751 756 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1978 Analysis of the Jet Engine Propulsion and Thrust relative to the use of the Water Molecule Power Reactor System <p>As civilization evolves through time, humans had begun to unfold the capabilities of the mind to create things and it had evolved through the great span of time from ancient world to the modern era but human civilization cannot be considered advance yet until it is able to reach the nearest planet from earth. As human had begun to embrace the modern world of digital technology and space travel, it had become a burden for mankind as to how would it be able to reach the moon and the nearest planet from earth. The primary concern for space travel is fuel. The fuel that would be capable of transporting a ship from this planet earth to the next nearest planet in the solar system, the answer to this question might be here on earth as well, the very element that came from space and form our beautiful and amazing planet, it is water. Water is a very vital element to human existence although many take it for granted but water is truly our life and time will come that water will be a very valued commodity in this planet.</p> Jeremy Guimbaolibot Ecle Fedeliza O. Abrera Arvin Anthony S. Araneta Cherlowen A. Bolito Archibald M. Duran Loren Rose L. Alforte Arnold R. Balano Archibal D. Ranido Copyright (c) 2020 Jeremy Guimbaolibot Ecle, Fedeliza O. Abrera, Arvin Anthony S. Araneta, Cherlowen A. Bolito, Archibald M. Duran, Loren Rose L. Alforte, Arnold R. Balano, Archibal D. Ranido 2020-06-30 2020-06-30 5 6 757 762 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.6.1996