European Journal of Engineering Research and Science https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Impact Factor</strong> : 0,69</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Monthly</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Country of Origin:</strong> Belgium</button></td> <td align="right" valign="bottom" width="20%" height="70px">&nbsp;<img src="/upload/documents/new10_e0.gif" alt="gif" border="0"></td> <td align="left" valign="bottom" height="125px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org"><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org">editor@ejers.org</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jW1fB2qUlOU" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.europapublishing.org">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (iThenticate.com).</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.doi.org/">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2506-8016"><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scilit.net/pub/article/10.24018"><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=so%3AEuropean+Journal+of+Engineering+Research+and+Science&amp;qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scienceopen.com/user/3eed4386-308b-4036-abc4-d2d83df0dcdd"><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="https://www.ieee.org/conferences/publishing/templates.html">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2506-8016 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Evaluation of Lightning Protection Efficacy on Nigerian Installations High Voltage Installations Using Screen and Cone of Protection Methods https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1401 <p>This study evaluated lightning protective system efficacy on 11kV-132kV substation-power line installation in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria with reference to cloud to ground(C-G) lightning strike (LS) events. It focus on interception of lightning strikes and its protection with reference to direct lightning strike (DLS) and indirect lightning strike (IDLS). Data were collected from Ikorodu 132/33 kV Transmission Substation and its four major injection stations. &nbsp;This work was carried out using physical measurement of raw data obtained from the high voltage substation. Installations were scaled down and modelled dimensionally using AutoCAD software in order to measure spatial parameters in order to measure the screening of the existing substations and connected lines, as well as the existing cone angles of protection. Probability of lightning efficiency of lightning protective level (LPL) are used for screening evaluation while spike and sky wire angle of protection are used for cone of protection evaluation. Physical measurement of six substations (33/11 kV and 132/33 kV substations) in the studied area were also carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the installed lightning arresters with respect to the protected devices using applicable standard. The results under the prevailing lightning protective system, LPS, (screening method), revealed that the existing 33/11 kV and 132/33 kV substations are not adequately protected against lightning strike; 132/33 kV substation is more vulnerable to lightning strike than 33/11kV substation and that the incoming 132kV power lines to the substation are adequately protected. The evaluation of the installed distances of all lightning arresters are within standard range and would adequately protect substation transformers against travelling waves (Indirect Stroke) events. The installed lightning arresters (LAs) would adequately protect substation transformers against travelling waves (Indirect Stroke) events. The adequate protection should be reinforced with proposed design scheme in further study in order to mitigate the disastrous effects of lightning strike. Any proposed design of protective system for electric power installations in Nigeria should be simulated using computer aided design software for scaled validation of dimensional and spatial design values in order to mitigate reported failures and uncertainties in identifying causes of observed failures in the system.</p> M. O. Oyeleye Copyright (c) 2019 M. O. Oyeleye http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-09 2019-07-09 4 7 1 10 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.7.1401 Numerical Analysis of Effect of Leading-Edge Rotating Cylinder on NACA0021 Symmetric Airfoil https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1385 <p class="StyleAbstractLinespacingDouble1" style="text-indent: 10.1pt; line-height: normal; margin: 1.0pt 0in .0001pt 0in;"><a name="_Hlk11574114"></a><span style="font-size: 9.0pt;">The moving surface boundary control (MSBC) has been a Centre stage study for last 2-3 decades. The preliminary aim of the study was to ascertain whether the concept can improve the airfoil characteristics. Number of experimental and numerical studies pointed out that the MSBC can superiorly enhance the airfoil performance albeit for higher velocity ratios (i.e. cylinder tangential velocity to free stream velocity). Although abundant research has been undertaken in this area on different airfoil performances but no attempt was seen to study effect of MSBC on NACA0021 airfoil for and also effects of lower velocity ratios. Thus, present paper focusses on numerical study of modified NACA 0021 airfoil with leading edge rotating cylinder for velocity ratios (i.e.) between 1 to 1.78 at different angles of attack. The numerical study indicates that the modified airfoil possess better aerodynamic performance than the base airfoil even at lower velocity ratios (i.e. for velocity ratios 0.356 and beyond). The study also focusses on reason for improvement in aerodynamic performance by close look at various parameters.</span></p> Md. Abdus Salam Vikram Deshpande Nafiz Ahmed Khan M. A. Taher Ali Copyright (c) 2019 Md. Abdus Salam, Vikram Deshpande, Nafiz Ahmed Khan, M. A. Taher Ali http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-09 2019-07-09 4 7 11 17 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.7.1385 Effect of Dielectric Constant of Medium on Conductance for Trimethylsulfonium Halides in Normal and Branched Alcohols https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1382 <p>The conductance parameters, Λo (equivalent conductance at infinite dilution) and K<sub>A</sub> (association constant) for trimethylsulfonium halides (Bromide and Iodide) in methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, 2-propanol and n-butanol have been evaluated at 25°C from the conductance measurements. The values of Λo for different salts decrease with decreasing dielectric constant of medium (D) with some variations and are in the order of MeOH &gt; EtOH &gt; n-PrOH &gt; 2-PrOH &gt; n-BuOH. The association constants of the same salts in different alcohols increase with decreasing dielectric constant of medium and are in the order of n-BuOH &gt; 2-PrOH &gt; n-PrOH &gt; EtOH &gt; MeOH.</p> Nasr H. El-Hammamy Marwa A. Daghash Aida I. Kawana Copyright (c) 2019 Nasr H. El-Hammamy, Marwa A. Daghash, Aida I. Kawana http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-10 2019-07-10 4 7 18 20 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.7.1382 Flora and Species Diversity of Riparian Zones at Yongheung Stream, Hapcheon-gun Province, Korea https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1410 <p>The aim of this study was to analyze the flora and species diversity of Yongheung Stream, a small stream in Korea. The stream was divided into 3 compartments for convenience. Sampling with quadrats (plots of a standard size) can be used for most plant communities. The upper region was a total of 59 taxa, including 17 families, 47 genera, 52 species, and 7 varieties. Naturalized plants were 15 species. The total transformed Braun-Blanquet value and r-NCD at middle area were 162 and 1,800.0, respectively. The middle region was a total of 59 taxa, including 17 families, 47 genera, 52 species, and 7 varieties. Naturalized plants were 15 species. The total transformed Braun-Blanquet value and r-NCD at middle area were 162 and 1,800.0, respectively. Riverbed area was dominated by the distribution of three willow species (<em>Populus euramericana,</em> <em>Salix</em> <em>gracilistyla</em>, and <em>Salix koriyanagi</em>) at middle region. The low region was a total of 55 taxa, including 16 families, 43 genera, 47 species, and eight varieties. Naturalized plants were 20 species. The total transformed Braun-Blanquet value and r-NCD at middle area were 155 and 1,755.6, respectively. Invasion of natural ecosystems by exotic plant species is recognized as a major threat to biodiversity at Yongheung Stream.</p> Man Kyu Huh Copyright (c) 2019 Man Kyu Huh http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-13 2019-07-13 4 7 21 27 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.7.1410 Dual band Stepped Impedance Interdigital Microstrip Filter for LTE Bands https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1407 <p>In this paper, a dual band microstrip bandpass filter has been proposed utilizing three edge coupled resonators, interdigital stubs and DGS technique. To enhance the coupling degree, two interdigital coupled feed lines are employed in this filter. The suppressing cell consists of stepped impedance ladder type resonators, which provides a wide stopband. The proposed suppressing cell has clear advantages like low insertion loss in the passband and suitable roll off. The frequency response of the filter looks like a standard dual band band-pass filter. The filter exhibits a dual passband with resonant frequencies at 2.2GHz and 3.45GHz covers LTE1 and LTE22 bands.</p> William Johnson Cavin Roger Nunes Savio Sebastian Dias Siddhi Suresh Parab Varsha Shantaram Hatkar Copyright (c) 2019 William Johnson, Cavin Roger Nunes, Savio Sebastian Dias, Siddhi Suresh Parab, Varsha Shantaram Hatkar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-17 2019-07-17 4 7 28 30 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.7.1407 Illumination Evaluation of Lecture Theatre, Case Study of 1000 Seat Lecture Theatre, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1420 <p>Light, apart from making it possible for one to view objects clearly, can also be used for the beautification of any given space. Existing 1000 Seat Lecture Theatre auditorium lights lux level (115 lux) is below acceptable of for an auditorium suitable for writing during examination. This paper focus on illumination evaluation of a lecture theatre, case study of 1000 Seat lecture theatre, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. The auditorium is used for lecture and writing examination. Lumen method which is one of the methods for calculation the number of lamp for a space is used to determine the number of lamp needed for the studied area. The architectural design of the auditorium is not available, so, the dimensions of the floor of the studied area were measured with a measuring tape. The measured floor dimensions was used to produce model of the floor in autoCAD software in order to calculate the area of the floor because the auditorium was of irregular shape and different mounting heights. The obtained area is used to calculate the illuminance required for the auditorium using Lumen method, equation. Try and error method was used in selecting E, M<sub>f</sub> and U<sub>f</sub>&nbsp; to arrive at 115Lux &nbsp;of the studied area. Lumen method, putting into consideration standard maintenance factor (0.8) and utilization factor (0.7) of existing literatures and renowned consultancy firms were used.&nbsp; This paper submitted that the lux level of the 1000 Seat Lecture Theatre (SLT) is below acceptable international standard of 400lux (standard and the industrial practice) for a classroom-auditorium suitable for writing examination.&nbsp; The space is poorly illuminated (33.3% of the required illumination and 20% wattage contribution of the design.) using EDA 18W compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). The existing 2 x 18W CFL installed in the SLT should be replaced with 85W (5500lumen, 5500K, 10000Hrs) CFL because of its benefits. 400 Lux is adequate for Lecture Theatre Auditorium lux level; lighting designer should employ adequate lux level to avoid negative side effects of poor illumination.</p> M. O. Oyeleye Copyright (c) 2019 M. O. Oyeleye http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-17 2019-07-17 4 7 31 36 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.7.1420