European Journal of Engineering Research and Science <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; 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border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2506-8016 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> Modelling and Optimization of Ultrasound Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols Using Response Surface Methodology <p>Mango seed kernels are by-products of the consumption and transformation of mango fruits (<em>Mangifera indica</em> L.). Many ways of valorisation have been proposed, and among them, their phenolic compounds extraction. To increase the extraction yield, ultrasound-assisted extraction was modelled and optimized. The 4 factors Central Composite design associated with the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were used to achieve that goal. The effect of extraction time, temperature, stirring rate and the Ultrasound Amplitude, on the total phenolic compound extraction yield and the total reducing power of the extract, were studied and modelled. The modelling allows us to do a multi-response optimization to identify the best-operating conditions to achieve at the same time the highest extraction yield and antioxidant capacity. The optimal operating conditions achieved were 41.82 min of extraction time, 54.75⁰C as extraction time, under 266.67 rpm as stirring rate, and 100% ultrasound amplitude. With an expected extraction yield of 71.35 mg GA/g, and 123.058 mg AA/g of total reducing power. 2 extraction cycles, under these conditions, are enough to extract a maximum of the phenolic content, under the described conditions.</p> Junior Franck Ekorong Akouan Anta Dorothée Marcelle Biloa Bruno Fabrice Siewe Raghavarao K. S. M. S. Copyright (c) 2020 Junior Franck Ekorong Akouan Anta, Dorothée Marcelle Biloa, Bruno Fabrice Siewe, Raghavarao K. S. M. S. 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 5 9 1004 1012 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2115 Analysis and Design of Steel a Floating Pontoon Jetty for Use in the Coastal Waters of Nigeria <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Floating pontoons are semi-permanently moored structures on a water body to provide boarding access to commuters. The decision to develop such structures was informed by the need to provide berthing access to river crafts that operate on the coastal waters of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. In this project, a floating pontoon, a gangway, and other supporting structures like scantlings and spud pillars, were designed to meet the needs and environmental requirements of the area. Standards consulted are the DNV Rules for the classification of ships; DNV Rules for the classification of Floating Docks; ABS Rules for Building and Classing Steel Barges; and other relevant Nigeria and Imo standards. The pontoon designed has dimensions: 13 x 12 x 4.8 m; gross tonnage of 15 tonnes; 2nos. of dry tanks of capacity 17.2 m</span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Lucida Sans Unicode','sans-serif';">³</span><span lang="EN-US"> and 6nos. of manholes of 450 x 550 mm. The strength of materials analysis was limited to the floating pontoon for limitations of space for this paper. The pontoon and scantling design has been done based on the worst condition of design pressure which is for the maximum submersion draft. Normal grade steel of yield strength 235 MPa is chosen for all members except the pontoon girders, frames and pillars. This is to reduce the material scantlings and to ensure higher strength with lesser scantlings. Longitudinal framing is adopted in the pontoons as the pontoon structure needs more strength in the longitudinal direction. </span></p> Icho Seimokomoh Igwe Tolumoye John Ajoko Copyright (c) 2020 Icho Seimokomoh Igwe, Tolumoye John Ajoko 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 5 9 1013 1021 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.1863 An Indirect Estimator of Speed for a DC Motor Embedded in an Automotive Combustion Engine <p>This paper develops an estimator of speeds indirect for a DC motor embedded in an electrical water pump installed in internal combustion engines. The benefit of this technique is that the estimation framework doesn't require a dynamometer or machine-like coupling. The test results were based on the Motor Current Signal Analysis (MCSA) technique that is commonly used in an AC motor and has a great performance for measuring the rotational speed of electric motors. Two tests were used, one with DC motors using a dynamometer to validate the indirect reading of the rotation and another using the indirect estimator of speed developed in this work. This technique had positive results, regardless of the type of current sensor used. The preliminary outcomes from a research center model were introduced to justify the practicality of the proposed estimator of speed.</p> Paulo Bressan Cesar Da Costa Copyright (c) 2020 Paulo Bressan, Cesar Da Costa 2020-09-04 2020-09-04 5 9 1022 1026 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2096 The Assessment of the suitability of reconfigurable design through simulation and decision trees <p>Positioning of the equipment of a manufacturing company is done foreseeing that it will remain fixed for a long time. This is because changes in the plant layout are thought to be costly, as they involve redesigning equipment support services, developing new foundations, using heavy machinery to move equipment, and causing non-productive time at the plant. However, the increased competition due to globalization, lead us to consider the alternative of making modifications to the layout more frequently to improve productivity. Changing the position of the equipment can be facilitated by specifying smaller mobile process equipment or by anticipating the availability of services at different points in the workshop and the existence of cranes or other means of transportation. These forecasts, <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">logically</span>, result in a greater investment in elements that, at least initially, do not generate any profit.</p> <p>This work shows the evaluation of the feasibility of modifying the positions of the equipment when there are variations in the probability distribution in production speeds. This evaluation is carried out using decision trees and process simulation. The case study addressed consists of a generic production line with serial workstations. Jobs arrive at the first computer and join their product on hold if space is available, otherwise the job is lost. In the same way, the product on hold of the other teams are limited in size, and when a product on hold is full, the team behind stops until there is space available. Due to the use, the speeds of the equipment are changing with respect to the ones they had when new: the process times are increasing and / or becoming more variable. To improve productivity under the new process speeds, the space between the equipment can be modified, however, during this change, production must be suspended.</p> <p>This work shows how, by simulating processes and decision trees, it is possible to determine the ranges of values ​​of the suspension time and the cost of transport for which it is convenient to make changes in the spacing of the equipment.</p> Ricardo Irving Ramirez Guzman Mario Luis Chew Hernández Mtro. Leopoldo Viveros Rosas Ricardo Rodríguez Figueroa Copyright (c) 2020 Ricardo Irving Ramirez Guzman, Mario Luis Chew Hernández, Mtro. Leopoldo Viveros Rosas, Ricardo Rodríguez Figueroa 2020-09-06 2020-09-06 5 9 1027 1030 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2002 Repurposing Hydroxychloroquine as a Model Drug for the Prediction of Potential SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitor <p>The use of hydroxychloroquine as SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor is currently being reviewed in various clinical trials.&nbsp; To exhaustively assess the benefit of hydroxychloroquine in the search for SARS-CoV-2 cure, this paper repositioned hydroxychloroquine as a model for virtual screening on the ZINC database.&nbsp; Molecular docking studies of 5r7y with the retrieved molecules were performed.&nbsp; The S-score of the predicted compounds were compared with the reference inhibitor (hydroxychloroquine).&nbsp; After evaluating their binding energy, five compounds (ZINC52939663, ZINC21291670, ZINC12714071, ZINC40089978 and ZINC15963294) were noticed have to highest binding energy with SARS-CoV-2.&nbsp; The binding scores of the top five ligands were higher than that of the reference molecule.&nbsp; The pharmacokinetics, toxicity prediction, drug-likeness and global reactivity assessment of ZINC52939663, present the lead compound as a drug candidate with the probable capacity to inhibit SARS-CoV-2.</p> K. K. Igwe O. V. Ikpeazu F. J. Amaku I. E. Otuokere Copyright (c) 2020 K. K. Igwe, O. V. Ikpeazu, F. J. Amaku, I. E. Otuokere 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 5 9 1031 1036 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2056 Using the Pharmacophoric features of Azithromycin to design potential SARS-CoV-2 inhibitor <p>The outbreak of novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) found in Wuhan China is rapidly spreading to all nations of the world.&nbsp; Currently, there are no approved drugs for the treatment of the novel coronaviral disease.&nbsp; Meanwhile, repositioning of some antibiotics, antiviral and antimalaria drugs have been employed.&nbsp; In this study, we used azithromycin as a model drug to virtual screen the ZINC database and the molecules obtained were docked against SARS-CoV-2 protein with PDB code: 5r7y.&nbsp; The best five ligands with high affinity for the target protein was compared with the reference molecule (Azithromycin).&nbsp; The docking score for the predicted ligands with high affinity for the target protein include ZINC10635972 (-6.3 kcal/mol), ZINC02651653 (-6.2 kcal/mol), ZINC09728215 (-6.2 kcal/mol), ZINC15003138 (-6.1 kcal/mol), ZINC89836288 (-6.1 kcal/mol) and azithromycin (+28.2 kcal/mol).&nbsp; The lead molecule (ZINC10635972) was observed to interacted with LUE 141, ASN 142, SER 144, SER 46, GLY 189, GLU 166, MET 165, HIS163, MET 49, HIS 164, PHE 140, GLY 143,THR 25, CYS 145, HIS 41, CYS 44 and THR 45.&nbsp; Meanwhile, hydrogen bond was predominant in the ZINC10635972-5r7y interaction.&nbsp; The lead molecule demonstrated good pharmacokinetics properties, drug-like characteristic and moderate chemical reactivity index.&nbsp; Besides, ZINC10635972 was noticed to fit the class 5 toxicity index.&nbsp; Hence, ZINC10635972 is a promising compound that should be further examined as drug candidates before clinical evaluation.</p> O. V. Ikpeazu F. J. Amaku I. E. Otuokere K. K. Igwe Copyright (c) 2020 O. V. Ikpeazu, F. J. Amaku, I. E. Otuokere, K. K. Igwe 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 5 9 1037 1042 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2057 Design of Potential SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitor <p>This computational study comprises of pharmacophore-base virtual screening of the ZINC database, molecular docking of predicted ligands (pharmacophore agent) against the target protein, SARS-CoV-2 (PDB ID: 5r7y) and the prediction of ADMET descriptors using Swiss ADME and PROTOX-II online web servers.&nbsp; Meanwhile,&nbsp; remdesivir, ZINC72392503, ZINC72809903, ZINC06560017, ZINC76101700, ZINC88423098 and ZINC91600695 had a docking scores of -2.0 Kcal/mol, -6.7 Kcal/mol, -6.4 Kcal/mol, -6.0 Kcal/mol, -6.0 Kcal/mol, -6.0 Kcal/mol and-6.0 Kcal/mol respectively.&nbsp; Meanwhile, ZINC72392503 was selected as the lead molecule and was observed to interact with LUE 27, THR 25, CYS 145, THR 26, SER 46, GLY 143, ASN 142, HIS 163, HIS 41, MET 165, GLU 166, ARG 188, GLN 189, HIS 41, MET 49, SER 46 amino acids.&nbsp; The ADME descriptor revealed that the lead molecule was soluble, druggable, void of drug-drug interaction that may inhibit essential enzymatic reaction and was noticed to fall into PROTOX-II toxicity class 3.&nbsp; The lead molecule showed a good affinity for the target protein of SARS-CoV-2, hence, may have a physiological implication that can inhibit a protein responsible for the replication of SARS-CoV-2.</p> F. J. Amaku I. E. Otuokere K. K. Igwe O. V. Ikpeazu Copyright (c) 2020 F. J. Amaku, I. E. Otuokere, K. K. Igwe, O. V. Ikpeazu 2020-09-07 2020-09-07 5 9 1043 1048 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2058 Causes of Delayed Payment in Construction Project in Nigeria <p>Delay in payment to contactors and other relevant parties have caused serious problem on the successful execution of construction projects in the country. It causes several problems to the contractor and other participants. The aim of this study is to determine the causes of delayed payments in the construction industry. The objective of this study is to identify the causes of delayed payment. In order to obtain valid data for the study, questionnaires were designed and distributed to a randomly selected sample of one hundred individuals among contractors, subcontractors, consultant and clients in the Nigerian construction industry. In total, eighty five completed questionnaires were returned and then analysed statistically. The total mean score was used to determine the ranking of the results of the study. Client’s disagreeing on the valuation of work done, slow processing of variation orders and poor quality of works were the major causes of delayed payment identified in the study. It was recommended that the stakeholders should work as a team in the execution of project to avoid bottlenecks usually encountered in agreeing contractors‟ payment. In conclusion, if the necessary action can be enforced, the problem of delayed payment can be reduced drastically.</p> Onyekachukwu G. Odenigbo Koleola T Odusami Kevin C. Okolie Vincent C. Okafor Copyright (c) 2020 Onyekachukwu G. Odenigbo, Koleola T Odusami, Kevin C. Okolie, Vincent C. Okafor 2020-09-09 2020-09-09 5 9 1049 1053 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2066 The Impact of Node Density and Buffer Size on DTN Routing Protocols with Energy Efficiency <p>Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) architecture comprises of portable devices known as nodes, considered a resource-limited networking system. These nodes in DTN utilize the ‘Store Carry and Forward’ approach to route data since the end to end connections are absent here due to a large number of constant intermittent connectivity. The energy quantity of nodes is restricted because limited-lifetime rechargeable batteries drive them. Accordingly, energy is an essential resource in DTN scenarios. For efficient network performance, including proper energy usage, nodes need to expense a minimum amount of energy. For this reason, it is essential to select an energy-efficient forwarding strategy and exhibit excellent performance among existent forwarding approaches in the DTN environment for routing messages effectively. In this paper, we have studied the energy efficiency of conventional DTN routing protocols: Epidemic, Spray and Wait, Spray and Focus, MaxProp, and PRoPHET on the impact of varying both buffer size and node density. We analyzed their energy consumption and compared their performance based on five performance metrics: average remaining energy, delivery ratio, average delay, transmission cost, and average hop count, respectively. Using ONE simulator, we performed a simulation with varying node density (while buffer size is fixed) and varying buffer size (while node density is fixed). From the outcomes of simulation, we found that Spray and Wait are the most energy-efficient DTN routing protocols. On the contrary, Spray and Focus possessed as the best performer in terms of average hop count, average delay, delivery ratio and transmission cost among conventional DTN routing protocols.</p> Md. Khalid Mahbub Khan Kawsaruzzaman Kawsaruzzaman Md. Mahbubur Rahman Al- Imtiaz Al- Imtiaz Copyright (c) 2020 Md. Khalid Mahbub Khan, Kawsaruzzaman Kawsaruzzaman, Md. Mahbubur Rahman, Al- Imtiaz, Al- Imtiaz 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 5 9 1054 1061 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2104 Mineralogical and Geotechnical Properties of Clay Minerals in Northern Borno, Nigeria <p>Clay generally refers to either fine grained earth material with particle size of less than two micron (&lt; 2 m) or group of hydrous aluminum silicate minerals that are characterized by sheet silicate structure of composite layers stacked along the C-axis. They are common deposits found in most geological setting like in fine grained sedimentary rocks such as shale, mudstone, and siltstone, in fine grained metamorphic slate and phyllite. The interest in clay deposits arises from its numerous uses of the mineral group and the behaviour of soils constituents when used as engineering soil and its resultant effects on engineering structures like roads, dams, bridges and houses. Evaluation of the soil properties of the Chad Formation indicated that the plasticity characteristics of the samples are of low to medium plasticity as indicated by matching the result with the DIN. chart. The results of free swell showed that the samples are susceptible to swelling when they absorbed water. The particle size distribution tests indicate that the percentage of fine (i.e. samples passing the 75µm sieve) is about 1.7 % implying that the grain sizes are within the texture of medium grain fraction</p> Fatimoh Dupe Adams Shettima Bukar Mohammed Bukar B. A. Umdagas Copyright (c) 2020 Fatimoh Dupe Adams, Shettima Bukar, Mohammed Maiduguri Bukar, B. A. Umdagas 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 5 9 1062 1068 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.1767 Optimal Aqueous Extraction Conditions as A Green Technique for Recovery of Phenolic Antioxidants from Robusta Dried Coffee Pulp <p>Coffee pulp, a by-product of coffee processing, contains high level of flavonoids and other phenolic compounds. This by-product also contains high levels of other bioactive compounds such as chlorogenic acids and caffeine, which can be potentially recovered for further applications. This study used water as an inexpensive green solvent, for the maximum recovery of phenolics, major bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity from coffee pulp. Recovery yield from optimal aqueous extraction was compared with organic solvent extraction. The results showed that temperature, extraction time and solid/solvent ratio significantly affected recovery yields from coffee pulp (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05). Optimal aqueous extraction conditions were 100 °C, 60 min and the ratio of sample to solvent 1:100 g/mL. Under these optimal conditions, recovery yields were similar to those of 50% aqueous acetone extraction. Recovery yields were significantly higher than pure acetone, methanol and ethanol as well as methanol and ethanol in combination with water (50% v/v). Therefore, these optimal aqueous conditions are recommended for recovery of bioactive compounds from coffee pulp for further applications.</p> Thy Minh Kieu Tran Taiwo Akanbi Timothy Kirkman Minh Huu Nguyen Quan Van Vuong Copyright (c) 2020 Thy Minh Kieu Tran, Taiwo Akanbi, Timothy Kirkman, Minh Huu Nguyen, Quan Van Vuong 2020-09-10 2020-09-10 5 9 1069 1074 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2116 Control of the Water Quality of Antsidihy Lake Located in the District of Nosy-Be, Diana Region (Madagascar) <p>For physical parameters: Conductivity the value found is 1031 µS / cm the limit value 100- 1000 µS / cm, the turbidity the value found is 0.78 NTU the maximum value &lt;5 NTU, the pH is 6.96 the limit value between 6.5 - 9 and the temperature is 21 °C the maximum value &lt;25 °C. So for the physical parameters perfectly meet the standards required for water intended for human consumption. For chemical parameters: the mineralization the concentration is 955 mg / L the limit concentration 1000 mg / L, the total hardness is 18.3 °f the maximum concentration 50 °f, the calcium is 20 mg / L the maximum concentration 100mg / L, magnesium is 1.46 mg / L the limit concentration 50 mg / L, potassium is 5.5 mg / L the required concentration &lt;12 mg / L, sodium is 80.5 mg / L the limit concentration 200 mg / L, Chlorides is 124.5 mg / L the maximum concentration &lt;250 mg / L, the iron is 0.015 mg / L the required concentration &lt;0.02 mg / L and the Lead is 0, 01 mg / L the limit concentration 0.05 mg / L. For the chemical parameters the concentrations found are acceptable for international standards, despite the insufficiency of some concentrations compared to international standards, such as magnesium, potassium and calcium. For microbiological parameters: microorganisms at 36 °C is 1.005 NPP / mL compared to standards &lt;100mL, Coliform bacteria is 0, Escherichia Coli is 0 and Intestinal enterococci is 0, the requirements for water intended for human consumption is zero. So the microbiological parameters of Antsidihy Lake water perfectly meet the standard required for drinking water.</p> Théophile Razafitsiferana Bruno Razanamparany Copyright (c) 2020 Théophile Razafitsiferana, Bruno Razanamparany 2020-09-11 2020-09-11 5 9 1075 1080 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2003 Review of Nigeria’s Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB) <p>Since the discovery of Crude Oil in 1875, the Petroleum Industry has gradually improved in value due to the series of valuable products gotten from crude oil. The significant impact of crude oil as a source of energy has made exportation and importation of this mineral a lucrative business around the world, having turned to be the major source of revenue for most producing countries. Crude oil has contributed to about 80% of Nigerian Government revenue and foreign exchange since 1958, making it a key player in the economic plan of the country. Its importance in Nigeria has made the Legislature introduce lots of policies and laws governing the Oil and Gas business in the country. However, Nigerians with different views over the years have clamored for an improvement of these policies to enable the benefits of Her resources fairly get to the grassroots, producing communities and states while improving foreign investment policies in the country. These demands led to the introduction of the Petroleum Industry Bill (PIB) in the year 2000. This research work attempts to review and offer recommendations for improvements to avoid future litigations, violence, conflicts, and industry fragility. This work will also elaborate on different steps taken by the Nigerian Government over the years to implement this bill, challenges faced by the Government and International Oil Companies (IOCs), Government and its citizens, and anomalies seen in the bill up till status quo.</p> Azubuike Hope Amadi Victor D. Ola John O. Ayoola Copyright (c) 2020 Azubuike Hope Amadi, Victor D. ola, John O. Ayoola 2020-09-11 2020-09-11 5 9 1081 1084 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2109 Normality Testing for Vectors on Perceptron Layers <p>Designing optimal topology of network graph is one of the most prevalent issues in neural network applications. Number of hidden layers, number of nodes in layers, activation functions, and other parameters of neural networks must suit the given data set and the prevailing problem. Massive learning datasets prompt a researcher to exploit probability methods in an attempt to find optimal structure of a neural network. Classic Bayesian estimation of network hyperparameters assumes distribution of specific random parameters to be Gaussian. Multivariate Normality Analysis methods are widespread in contemporary applied mathematics. In this article, the normality of probability distribution of vectors on perceptron layers was examined by the Multivariate Normality Test. Ten datasets from University of California, Irvine were selected for the computing experiment. The result of our hypothesis on Gaussian distribution is negative, ensuring that none of the set of vectors passed the criteria of normality.</p> Youmna Shawki Karaki Halina Kaubasa Nick Ivanov Copyright (c) 2020 Youmna Shawki Karaki, Halina Kaubasa, Nick Ivanov 2020-09-11 2020-09-11 5 9 1085 1088 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2090 Wear Resistance Improvement of Copper Alloys Using a Thermochemically Obtained Zinc-Rich Coating <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">It has been developed a thermochemical process that has been applied on copper alloys: brass and bronze, using pure zinc powder, obtaining a zinc-rich wear protective coating. The layers obtained by a diffusion process, on brass (alloy C36000) and bronze specimens (alloy SAE 62), were characterized using a scanning electron microscope, EDAX microanalysis, Vickers microhardness, X-Ray diffraction analysis, and sliding wear test. The chemical analysis showed a layer composition of 62 % Zn and 38 % Cu, on average. The microhardness for thermochemical treated brass was 496HV and 598HV for bronze; thus, a microhardness increase for brass is 468% and 532% for bronze. It was made an X-Ray diffraction analysis, confirming the results obtained with the chemical analysis and crystalline structure for coating. It showed the presence of Cu<sub>64</sub>Zn<sub>36</sub> and Cu<sub>5</sub>Zn<sub>8</sub> phases. The wear tests demonstrated that treated specimens show better wear resistance than non-protected specimens.</span></p> Omar Alvarez Carlos Valdés Arturo Barba Rafael González Raúl Valdéz Celso Cruz Dayi Gilberto Agredo Alba Covelo Miguel Ángel Hernández Copyright (c) 2020 Omar Alvarez, Carlos Valdés, Arturo Barba, Rafael González, Raúl Valdéz, Celso Cruz, Dayi Gilberto Agredo, Alba Covelo, Miguel Ángel Hernández 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 5 9 1089 1096 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2070 Diagnosis of Head and Neck Cancer in Developing Countries Using a Stacked Ensemble Model <p>Head and neck cancers (HNC) are indicated when cells grow abnormally.&nbsp; The incidence of HNC is on the increase owing to several factors. There is often late presentation that can result in loss of lives (mortality) especially in Africa due to paucity of specialists. These challenges prompted the development of a stacked ensemble model for diagnosis of HNC to facilitate prompt referral.&nbsp; The data were collected which consists of 1473 instances with 18 features.&nbsp;&nbsp; Information Gain was used for selecting important features and three supervised learning algorithms were deployed for the base learners: Decision Tree (C4.5), K-Nearest Neighbors and Naïve Bayes. The predictions of the base learners were combined and passed to meta learners: Logistic Model Tree (LMT). The result showed that Information Gain method with stacked LMTwas 95.11%. It was deduced that both Information Gain with stacked MLR produced higher accuracy that the base learners’ results. Hence, this stacked model can be used for diagnosis of HNC in healthcare systems.</p> Folake Akinbohun Ambrose Akinbohun Adekunle Daniel Oghenerukevwe Elohor Ojajuni Copyright (c) 2020 Folake Akinbohun, Ambrose Akinbohun, Adekunle Daniel, Oghenerukevwe Elohor Ojajuni 2020-09-15 2020-09-15 5 9 1097 1101 10.24018/ejers.2020.5.9.2095