European Journal of Engineering Research and Science <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Impact Factor</strong> : 0,69</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Monthly</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Country of Origin:</strong> Belgium</button></td> <td align="right" valign="bottom" width="20%" height="70px">&nbsp;<img src="/upload/documents/new10_e0.gif" alt="gif" border="0"></td> <td align="left" valign="bottom" height="125px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> European Open Access Publishing en-US European Journal of Engineering Research and Science 2506-8016 <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> A Review of the Scrubber as a Tool for the Control of flue Gas Emissions in a Combustion System <p>This paper focuses on the description, function and working principles of the wet gas scrubber required to control air pollution emissions from a combustion system of a boiler. Important points to note in the selection and operation of the scrubber as well as the different types of scrubbers commonly deployed in the industries to cut down on emissions were addressed. A comprehensive reviews of the removal mechanisms and schemes of the scrubber were reported for various research on the subject. The packed tower scrubber, however, was recommended because of varying advantages and ease of operations.</p> N. Harry-Ngei I. Ubong P. N. Ede Copyright (c) 2019 I. Ubong, N. Harry-Ngei, P. N. Ede 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 4 11 1 4 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.11.1561 A Review of Solvent Selection Considerations in Absorption Systems <p>This review paper focuses on the description, uses and emission removal functions of a solvent with respect to air pollution control of the flue gases in a combustion chamber exhaust waste stream. The physical characteristics of the solvent required for improved and optimal performance of the absorption system where discussed. The factors affecting performance of the solvent with reference to parametric changes in operations as well as cost consideration schemes required to select the most appropriate solvent for increased performance were also ex-rayed. The choice of a solvent that is cost effective and readily available was recommended in the study.&nbsp;</p> I. Ubong N. Harry-Ngei P. N. Ede Copyright (c) 2019 I. Ubong, N. Harry-Ngei, P. N. Ede 2019-11-01 2019-11-01 4 11 5 10 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.11.1562 Matlab/Simulink and PVSyst Based Modeling and Validation of Photovoltaic Cells <p>Photovoltaic (PV) cells are modeled using numerical methods to illustrate the performance of the voltage and the current generated by the PV cell/Module. Those two quantities, voltage and current, depend on some manufacturing and environmental parameters such as the temperature and the incident irradiance. Accordingly, this paper shows the impact of such parameters on the electric behavior of PV cells/Modules. An electronic circuit, made up of a photocurrent source, a junction diode, a series and a shunt resistances represent the PV cell considered within this paper. Within this paper, a Matlab/Simulink model of a PV cell/module is presented. To validate the Matlab/Simulink model of the PV cell/module, real data of the AEGAS-P605-250 PV module is implemented in PVsyst. 6.6.3 tool to highlight the effect of manufacturing and climate parameters on the electric behavior of the module.</p> Tarek Selmi Hedi Dhouibi Jalel Ghabi Copyright (c) 2019 Tarek Selmi, Hedi Dhouibi, Jalel Ghabi 2019-11-02 2019-11-02 4 11 11 16 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.11.1607 Power System Market Planning <p>The loss of load expectation (LOLE) considered an acceptable security standard across most of the national electricity systems. In the present study, the LOLE is calculated. This means that the LOLE needs developing a model. The developed model serving to assesses the security of supply risks associated with the different electricity capacity margin levels, where the capacity margin is the level by which available electricity generation capacity exceeds the maximum expected level of demand. Then, the developed model updated on an annual basis. The annual update is helping to fulfill the Electricity Authority for planning, operation and control. The developed model will assess the system by calculating the capacity margin probability by combining both the generation and load models. The calculation of LOLE is an internationally accepted criterion in capacity adequacy.&nbsp; The results for the model of each region vary due to several factors, such as generation resource, load forecast, and forced outage rates (FOR). The estimation of the risk is economically optimal reserve margin to a number of case studies assumptions considered in the present study. The results help in future planning for the electric system operation and control. Furthermore, the study is helping to evaluate the implications of the obtained results for the electricity policy market to determine the best model for market design in the future.</p> Isa Salman Qamber Mohamed Y Al-Hamad Copyright (c) 2019 Isa Salman Qamber, Mohamed Y Al-Hamad 2019-11-06 2019-11-06 4 11 17 21 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.11.1602 Study on Implementation of Rooftop Photovoltaic Power Plant as an Effort to Attain a Sustainable Campus <p class="Abstract"><span style="color: black;">The concept of Green Campus means that the University has implemented environmental preservation activities, energy efficiency, and deliver comfortable conditions to support learning and work activities. The activity to harvest renewable energy is one of several approaches towards a sustainable campus. This study aims to analyze the technical and economic feasibility of a solar power plant erected on the roof of buildings within the campus area. Based on the University of Samudra development master plan, it has carried a technical and financial feasibility study with the assists of the System Advisor Model (SAM) software. The analysis shows that the current roof area is possible to generate electrical power of 3 MW, with economic calculations of electricity production costs of 11.7 cents/kWh.</span></p> Razali Thiab Munira Amudy T. A. Rizal Copyright (c) 2019 Razali Thiab, Munira Amudy, T. A. Rizal 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 4 11 21 25 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.11.1606 Kinematic Modelling of a Robot in Form-shaping Milling Complex Surfaces <p>This paper presents kinematic modelling of a robot in form-shaping milling complex surfaces, illustrated applying in form-shaping milling a molding prototype. The robot have 6 degrees of freedom, with a cutter attaching to the end of the end-effector. The workpiece is fixed on the clamping table. Using robot in form-shaping machining parts enables increasing the flexibility of selecting machining observation area, increasing capability of selecting engineering manipulation, increasing quality and machining efficiency. In machining process, because of the cutter moving along the machining trajectory in multidimensional space, computing and planning trajectory is more complex. In order to planning the trajectory, it need to derive the kinematic equations of the robot, and deal with the kinematic problems. The kinematics problems are solved with the constraints that the position, orientation, velocity of the tool frame must be coincided with the ones of the workpiece frame. After computing, the results are validated by simulation of robot motion.</p> Ha Thanh Hai Copyright (c) 2019 Ha Thanh Hai 2019-11-08 2019-11-08 4 11 26 31 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.11.1619 Voice activated Home System for the Movement Impaired Aged Persons <p>Smarthome system is one of the major growing industries that change the way people live, and most of these smarthome systems target abled young persons` seeking luxury and sophisticated smarthome platforms; but this design targets the disabled aged. This smarthome system allows the aged to wirelessly control home appliances from a centralized control unit. The developed system is integrated as a single portable unit that allows the user to wirelessly control lights, fans, electronic doors, electronic windows and robotic wheelchair. The system is portable and constructed in a way that it is easy to install, configure, run, and maintain. Here, voice being the primary interface between the aged user and the smarthome, a voice controlled smarthome system is designed, so that the users can perform their domestic tasks by just the use of their voices to speak their command words.</p> Godfrey Nwaji Okorafor Felix Kelechi Opara Nkwachukwu Chukwuchekwa Chigozie Gordon Ononiwu Copyright (c) 2019 Godfrey Nwaji Okorafor, Felix Kelechi Opara, Nkwachukwu Chukwuchekwa, Chigozie Gordon Ononiwu 2019-11-17 2019-11-17 4 11 32 37 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.11.1616 Thermal Properties of Beef Tallow/Coconut Oil Bio PCM Using T-History Method for Wall Building Applications <p>Thermal energy storage using Phase Change Materials (PCM) is now widely applied to wall buildings. In general, PCM which is used for applications on building walls is organic PCM and has temperature range from 0℃ to 65oC. Beef tallow and coconut oil is a type of organic PCM known as Bio PCM needs to characterize by using the T-History Method. The T-History method is more accurate than Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). This study aimed to determine the thermal properties of beef tallow/coconut oil PCM using the T-History method. The beef tallow and coconut oil as bio PCM material was used in this study with the variation are respectively: 100%, 70+30%, 60+40%, and 50+50%. Tests are carried out using the T-History method. From the results of testing and analysis obtained supercooling temperature, melting temperature, specific heat, and latent heat for bio PCM beef tallow/coconut oil.&nbsp;The effect of adding coconut oil mixture to beef tallow caused a decrease in melting temperature and supercooling temperature, while the specific heat and latent heat of bio PCM of beef tallow/coconut oil ranged from 2.96-2.19 kJ/kg.℃ and 101.05-72.32 kJ/kg.&nbsp;The result obtained that this bio PCM material of cow beef tallow/coconut oil can apply, as additional material in wall building applications.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Razali Thiab Muhammad Amin Hamdani Umar Copyright (c) 2019 Razali Thiab, Muhammad Amin, Hamdani Umar 2019-11-19 2019-11-19 4 11 38 40 10.24018/ejers.2019.4.11.1627