European Journal of Engineering Research and Science <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Impact Factor</strong> : 0,69</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Publication Frequency:</strong> Monthly</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>Country of Origin:</strong> Belgium</button></td> <td align="right" valign="bottom" width="20%" height="70px">&nbsp;<img src="/upload/documents/new10_e0.gif" alt="gif" border="0"></td> <td align="left" valign="bottom" height="125px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href=""><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href=""></a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=";qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href=""><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> (Editor-in-Chief) (Support) Mon, 02 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0500 OJS 60 Absorber Sizing and Costing Required to Control SO2 Emission from A Combustion System <p>This work was predicated on the design and costing of a packed column absorber required to remove SO<sub>2</sub> from an air/SO<sub>2</sub> mixture. The absorber is intended to be developed into an already existing combustion system as a retrofit. The gas flow rate basis of the computation was 40,000Kg/h. The Onda Method was used to estimate the column height as 9m and the column diameter as 2.5m while the column wall thickness as well as the domed head thickness was found to be 9mm using the BS 5500 Standard Method. In order to limit expenses, H<sub>2</sub>O was utilized as the absorber solvent and a flow rate of 29.5Kg/s to limit solvent usage. A pressure drop of 20mmH<sub>2</sub>O/m was assumed in the design with metal pall rings of diameter 51mm and surface area of 102m<sup>2</sup>/m<sup>3</sup> chosen as the packing material. The study estimated a profound $306,559.87 as the cost of the absorber required to remove 95% SO<sub>2</sub> content from the combustion waste stream.&nbsp;</p> N. Harry-Ngei, A. A. Ujile, P. N. Ede Copyright (c) 2019 N. Harry-Ngei, A. A. Ujile, P. N. Ede Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0500 Emission Rate Estimation of Fuel Oil in A Combustion System Using Empirical Method <p>This work highlighted the prediction of the emission rates of the products of combustion using a fuel oil of specific gravity of 0.9. The two reaction pathways of complete combustion and incomplete combustion were used differently to ascertain the emission rates. Ultimate analysis were conducted on the fuel oil to show the percentage composition of elements using ASTM 3178 method for carbon and hydrogen, Kjedahl method for nitrogen, ASTM D1552 for sulphur and the differences used to compute that of oxygen. The estimated percentages of the various elements were the stoichiometrically used to compute the emissions rates at standard conditions. The basis of the computation was a fuel oil flow rate of 10Tonnes/h and the following emission rates were predicted for the complete combustion reaction pathway: 31,246Kg/h for CO<sub>2</sub>, 65Kg/h for H<sub>2</sub>O, 158Kg/h for NO<sub>2</sub> and 20Kg/h for SO<sub>2</sub> while 9,940Kg/h for CO<sub>2</sub>, 15,623Kg/h for CO, 11,700Kg/h for H<sub>2</sub>O, 11Kg/h for H<sub>2</sub>S and 158Kg/h for NO<sub>2</sub> were predicted for the incomplete combustion pathway. The study noted that this predictive path should be taken where effective devices or logistics are not in place to measure emissions from combustion systems.</p> N. Harry-Ngei, I. Ubong, E. Ojong Copyright (c) 2019 N. Harry-Ngei, I. Ubong, E. Ojong Sun, 01 Dec 2019 00:00:00 -0500 A Novel Method of Clone Detection by Neural Networks <p>Code clone is that type of engine that helps to find duplicate code patterns find within the whole code. Programmers usually adopt code reusability task from previous few years, so that time consumption can be reduces. Code reusability can be done via replication or by just copy-paste. Code reusability leads to not writing code from scratch, just copy paste the useful part of the code. In finding of duplicated code fragment or text, plagiarism detection also work pretty well but it is not applicable to the large system in finding functional clone and also it is more time consuming even at small scale which make the detection method inappropriate. In this paper, we proposed a pattern similarity conditions on the basis of textual similarity for finding the code or text clones in the large content on the basis of SVM, Neural Network using Java coding, Neural Network and Sim Cad. This approach detects code or text clones from original one. The resultant simulation is taken place in the MATLAB environment, and it has shown that it is providing better results. The proposed algorithm performance is measured using parameters i.e. FRR, FAR and Accuracy.</p> Pallavi Sharma, Chetanpal Singh Copyright (c) 2019 Pallavi Sharma, Chetanpal Singh Tue, 03 Dec 2019 04:37:24 -0500 A Review on Parameters Affecting the Choice of Alternative (Non-Chemical) Weed Control Methods <p>Chemical using as a weed control method is the most preferred method in weed control because they are easily accessible, easily applicable and inexpensive. But, with the new environment-friendly regulations, the importance of non-chemical methods has increased all over the world. In addition, organic farm and non-chemical agricultural methods are gaining importance with increasing social environment and health awareness. Non-chemical methods, called, "alternative methods” have been one of the most popular research subjects in recent years. The physical removal or killing of weeds is usually done by hand or by means designed tools for this task, which varies from country to country. The most known modern non-chemical weed control methods are; electric current,&nbsp; microwave heating, superheated steam, infrared using, pneumatic system, freeze-drying, laser cutting, and fresnel lens systems. The most popular of these methods are; electric current method and microwave heating. In electric current and microwave heating methods, there are no chemical residues in soil and plants after application. It has been shown in the studies that, the microwave weed control method can destroy weeds and seeds when appropriate frequency, sufficient time and required power level are selected. Therefore, in the selection of non-chemical weed control methods, some important parameters of plant and soil should be known. The electrical and dielectric properties of plants and soil such as, electrical resistance (R), impedance (Z), dielectric constant (ε’), loss factor (ε’’), the permittivity (permeability (&nbsp;and conductivity (σ) should be known especially in microwave and electric current methods. The other parameters like the age, height and density of the plant is an issue to be considered in all control methods. But, the moisture content of soil and plant may not be taken into consideration in hot water and steam applications. For the freeze-drying method, the moisture and water content of the plant and soil must also be taken into account.</p> Hasan Sahin Copyright (c) 2019 Hasan Sahin Wed, 04 Dec 2019 01:21:38 -0500 Adaptive and Robust Second Order Sliding Mode Controller Dedicated to Nonlinear Uncertain Pendulum Application System <p>The research work presented within this paper deals with an innovative second-order sliding mode control (SOSMC) allocated to adaptive gain and associated with nonlinear systems subject to unknown but bounded uncertainties. The derived controller &nbsp;&nbsp;guarantees the control gain dynamical adaptation for the sake of counteracting the system’s uncertainties and to mitigate the chattering phenomenon. The Lyapunov method is also used to analyses the stability of any closed loop system (CLS) within a finite-time under bounded uncertainties assumptions. To assess how effective is the approach considered within this paper, the adaptive controller has been carefully studied on a benchmark of nonlinear systems on a damped overturned pendulum.</p> Hedi Dhouibi, Jalel Ghabi, Tarek Selmi Copyright (c) 2019 Hedi Dhouibi, Jalel Ghabi, Tarek Selmi Thu, 05 Dec 2019 05:45:33 -0500 Opus and Session Initiation Protocol Security in Voice over IP (VOIP ) <p>The purpose of the paper is to clearly elaborate how Opus Codec can be used as Voice over IP or Unified Communication as known Opus is an Audio Codec which is royalty free and most versatile format of Audio Codec the Opus codec is used for Interactive Voice and Multimedia application, Opus codec with WEBRTC (Web Real Time Communication) is a framework based on the Chrome Web Browser the codec behavior is usually effectively utilized under testing conditions for understanding the MOS assessment in comparison to the Opus Codec.The Opus codec is generally a low latency codec used for real time interactive communication the Opus codec replaces both Vorbis and Speex for new applications.</p> Siddarth Kaul; Anuj Jain Copyright (c) 2019 Siddarth Kaul; Anuj Jain Thu, 05 Dec 2019 06:06:10 -0500 Vibration Response of Tubular Joints Using a Simplified Mass-Spring Model <p>Using adhesives for joining tubular structures has been widely used to replace the traditional joining methods of welding, brazing, soldering, etc. The unique features associated with adhesives include low manufacturing cost, long components’ life, and lightweight. The goal of this study is to investigate the vibration response of the tubular joints when they are subjected to a harmonic axial load considering that the shear stress is linear through the thickness. A simplified mass-spring model is applied to study the response of the problem analytically. Finite element method (FEM) using ANSYS is then availed to validate and compare results obtained in the analytical approach. Additionally, some parameters such as overlap length and adherent material will be changed to examine their influence on the frequency response. Results and findings achieved analytically and numerically showed that the natural frequencies increase as the adherent wave velocity increases, whereas they decrease as the overlap length increases.</p> Shaalan A. Alqarni, Khalid H. Almitani, Ramzi Othman Copyright (c) 2019 Shaalan A. Alqarni, Khalid H. Almitani, Ramzi Othman Fri, 06 Dec 2019 03:43:38 -0500 A Comparison of Solar Photovoltaic and Solar Thermal Collector for Residential Water Heating and Space Heating System <p>Almost all single-family detached houses in Canada consume enormous electrical energy for space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) purposes. There are many possibilities to design an energy-efficient house. A solar water heating system can be used for domestic water and space heating. Water temperature can be kept constant always by connecting a heat pump or oil burner to the main tank because solar energy is intermittent. The sizing of solar photovoltaic and collector, tank, heat pump are essential to design an effective system based on the system energy consumption. The existing house is just a conventional house where space and water heating are provided by the grid electricity only. In this research, two possible ways of thermal energy storage systems have been designed for a residential single-family house with solar collector and solar photovoltaic. It is proved that the proposed PV based energy storage system is highly suitable considering lower cost, high output power, flexibility, and easy installation.</p> Md. Habibur Rahaman, Tariq Iqbal Copyright (c) 2019 Md. Habibur Rahaman, Tariq Iqbal Fri, 06 Dec 2019 06:43:45 -0500