European Journal of Engineering Research and Science https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers <table width="80%" cellpadding="10" align="center"> <tbody> <tr> <td rowspan="4" valign="top" width="20%"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/dergi_issue2.jpg" alt="jets" align="left" border="0" hspace="30"> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>DOI</strong> : 10.240818/EJERS</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; padding: 5px 5px 5px 5px; border-radius: 15px; border: 2px solid #0D0A0A; width: 275px;" type="button"><strong>ISSN</strong> : 2506-8016</button> <button style="background: #10C9F5; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: white; margin: 5px; 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text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">CALL FOR PAPER - NOVEMBER 2018</button></td> </tr> <tr> <td rowspan="3" align="right" valign="top" width="20%">&nbsp;</td> <td align="left" valign="top" height="75px"><button style="background: #A2E3FF; cursor: pointer; font-size: 15px; font-style: bold; text-align: center; color: blue; padding: 8px 16px; border-radius: 10px; border: 2px solid #4CAF50; width: 300px;" type="button">SUBMIT YOUR PAPER FOR PEER REVIEW</button> &nbsp;</td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="middle" height="100px"><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/crossref_badge2.png" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt="Natural" width="110" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt="Natural" width="220" height="60"> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt="Natural" width="100" height="60"></td> </tr> <tr> <td align="left" valign="top"> <p style="font-size: 14px; margin: 6px;">Submit&nbsp;<a href="/index.php/ejers/user/register"><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><strong>Online</strong></span>&nbsp;</a>or by&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org"><strong>E-mail</strong></a></span>&nbsp;to&nbsp;<a href="mailto:editor@ejers.org">editor@ejers.org</a></p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="7"> <tbody> <tr> <td>&nbsp; <iframe src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/jW1fB2qUlOU" width="450" height="250" frameborder="0"></iframe></td> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><span style="color: blue;">&nbsp;<strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ►&nbsp;</span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue; text-decoration: underline;">What does EJERS do</span></strong></span> <strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span></strong><strong><em>&nbsp;</em></strong></p> <p><strong>European Journal of Engineering Research and Science</strong>&nbsp;(EJERS) is a peer reviewed&nbsp;international journal publishes&nbsp;<strong>monthly</strong>&nbsp;full length state-of-the-art&nbsp;research papers, reviews, case studies related to <strong>all areas of Engineering and Science</strong>.&nbsp;</p> <p>All submitted articles:</p> <ul> <li class="show">must be <strong>original</strong></li> <li class="show">must be<strong> previously unpublished research results</strong></li> <li class="show">must be <strong>experimental or theoretical</strong></li> <li class="show">and will be <strong>peer-reviewed</strong></li> <li class="show">may not be <strong>considered for publication elsewhere at any time during the review period</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>EJERS is published by<strong>&nbsp;<a href="http://www.europapublishing.org">European Open Access Publishing (EUROPA Publishing)</a></strong>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table style="width: 100%;" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr> <td valign="top" bgcolor="FAFAFA"> <p><strong><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">&nbsp; &nbsp; ►&nbsp;</span><span style="text-decoration: underline; font-size: 140%; color: blue;">Why do we do it</span><span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?<em>&nbsp;</em></span> &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p>We believe that academic publishing should be a&nbsp;<strong>not-for-profit</strong>&nbsp;enterprise undertaken for the good of mass dissemination, not predicated upon exclusionary paywalls. Thus, EJERS aims to decrease the <strong><a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Article Processing Charge (APC)</a></strong>&nbsp;to acceptable boundaries.&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;">►&nbsp;<span style="text-decoration: underline;">How do we do it</span></span> <span style="font-size: 140%; color: blue;"> ?</span>&nbsp;&nbsp;</strong>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Open Access Policy</strong><br><br>EJERS provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available after publication on the journal website to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/open_access.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Zero Tolerance for Plagiarism&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS has a policy of “Zero Tolerance on the Plagiarism”. We check the plagiarism issue through two methods: reviewer check and plagiarism prevention tool (iThenticate.com).</p> <p>All submissions will be checked by plagiarism prevention software before being sent to reviewers.</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/no_plagiarism2.jpg" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p><strong>Digital Archiving Policy&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>EJERS uses LOCKSS system as digital archiving policy. LOCKSS ensures long-term survival of Web-based scholarly publications. Namely, your publication will remain digitally available forever for free under Creative Commons License.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/clockss_lockss.png" alt=""></p> <hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;<strong>Indexing&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><br><span class="auto-style5">All EJERS content is indexed with&nbsp;<a href="http://www.crossref.org/">CrossRef</a>&nbsp;and assigned a&nbsp;<a href="http://www.doi.org/">Digital Object Identifier (DOI)</a>. This means that all of our references are made available so that citations can be tracked by the publishing community.</span></p> <p><span class="auto-style5">In addition, EJERS is indexed in :</span></p> <ul> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://scholar.google.com/citations?hl=en&amp;user=A_Gus1kAAAAJ"><span class="auto-style5">Google Scholar</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://portal.issn.org/resource/ISSN/2506-8016"><span class="auto-style5">ROAD</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scilit.net/pub/article/10.24018"><span class="auto-style5">SCILIT</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.worldcat.org/search?q=so%3AEuropean+Journal+of+Engineering+Research+and+Science&amp;qt=results_page"><span class="auto-style5">WorldCat</span></a></li> <li class="show"><a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="https://www.scienceopen.com/user/3eed4386-308b-4036-abc4-d2d83df0dcdd"><span class="auto-style5">ScienceOpen</span></a></li> </ul> <img src="/public/site/images/editor_in_chief/indexing_policy.png" alt="Natural" width="1200" height="60"><hr align="left" width="250px"> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Paper Selection and Publishing Process</strong></p> <p><em>a) Submission Acknowledgement</em></p> <p>When you submit a manuscript online, you will receive a submission acknowledgement letter sent by the online system automatically. For email submissions, the editor or editorial assistant sends an email confirmation to the authors within one to three working days. If you fail to receive this confirmation, please check your bulk email box or contact the editorial assistant.</p> <p><em>b) Basic Review</em></p> <p>The editor or editorial assistant determines whether the manuscript fits the journal’s focus and scope. Next a check for the similarity index is done by using CrossCheck, powered by iThenticate. Any manuscripts that are out of the journal’s scope or containing plagiarism, including self-plagiarism, are rejected.</p> <p><em>c) Peer Review</em></p> <p>We use a double-blind system for peer reviewing; both reviewers’ and authors’ identities remain anonymous&nbsp;to each other. The paper will be peer-reviewed by two or three experts;&nbsp;one is an editorial staff and the other two are external reviewers.&nbsp;The review process may take two to four weeks.</p> <p><em>d) Decision&nbsp;</em></p> <p>The decision&nbsp;(Acception, Revision or Decline)&nbsp;is based on the suggestions of reviewers. If there is a different opinion between reviewers, the editor will arrive to a balanced decision based on all the comments, or a second round of peer-reviewing may be initiated.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>e) Publication Fee</em></p> <p>In order to start the copyediting procedures, <a href="/index.php/ejers/about/submissions#authorFees">Paper Publication Fee</a>&nbsp;must be paid.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>f) Copyediting Process-Step 1 : Journal Template Adaptation</em></p> <p>The authors need to re-edit the paper, using the template. The re-edited paper should use the template provided by us and meet the formatting requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.</p> <p>All accepted manuscripts are obligated to adapt the layout of the paper according to the journal's template. EJERS provides a <a href="/upload/documents/EJERS_template.docx">.DOCX template format</a>, and also accepts <a href="https://www.ieee.org/conferences/publishing/templates.html">IEEE journal LaTeX template format</a>.</p> <p><em>g) Copyediting Process-Step 2</em></p> <p>After receiving the revised paper. Our editing staff will work on the layout and format. After the process, we will invite you to check the paper again.</p> <p><em>h) Online Publication &amp; Indexing</em></p> <p>E-journal in .PDF &nbsp;format will be available on the journal’s webpage free of charge for download. In addition, a DOI identifier will be assigned to your paper, and you will be informed regarding to the DOI number.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> en-US <p>The names and email addresses entered in this journal site will be used exclusively for the stated purposes of this journal and will not be made available for any other purpose or to any other party.</p> <p>Submission of the manuscript represents that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not considered for publication elsewhere.&nbsp;</p> editor@ejers.org (Editor-in-Chief) editor@ejers.org (Support) Sun, 01 Nov 2020 00:00:00 -0400 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A Brief Review of Heat Sink, Heat Pipe, and Vapor Chamber as a Key Function of Thermal Solution for Electronic Devices https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1596 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Electronics industry requires efficient design that can handle fast mathematical operations to compensate for the growing development and demand for processing power. These days, there are numerous equipment or parts inside machines called heating elements particularly with electrical or electronic devices and they should be cooled during the working process. However, with respect to their size, manufacturers are minifying day by day to satisfy requirements of users but the power should be maintained. Hence, elements withstand a high amount of heat and high heat flux (transition/mutability) is being generated during the working process. The main contribution of this study is to investigate thermal solutions using four cooling tools and to compare to each other and consider thermal design guidelines and factors as well. Furthermore, we review the appropriate thermal solutions for the produced heat from the electronic equipment and we present the effective and suitable tools which used to dissipate this heat. A heat sink, heat pipe, and vapor chamber are reviewed and compared depending on the previous studies that have implemented them.</span></p> Mohamed Elnaggar, Mohammed Abu Hatab, Ezzaldeen Edwan Copyright (c) 2020 Mohamed H A Elnaggar http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1596 Fri, 06 Nov 2020 12:30:03 -0500 Design and Construction of a Double Pipe Heat Exchanger for Laboratory Application https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1950 <p>Engineering education is incomplete without laboratory practices. One of such laboratory equipment necessary for all engineering students to have hands-on in the course of their undergraduate studies is the heat exchanger. This work presents the detailed design and construction of a laboratory type double pipe heat exchanger that can be used both in the parallel and counter flow configuration. The heat exchanger was constructed using galvanized steel for both the tube and shell. Experiments were designed and carried out to test the performance of the heat exchangers. The heat exchanger performance characteristics (logarithm mean temperature difference (LMTD), heat transfer rate, effectiveness, and overall heat transfer coefficient) were obtained and compared for the two configurations. The LMTD tends to be relatively constant as the flow rate was increased for both the parallel and counter-flow configuration but with a higher value for the parallel flow configuration. The heat exchanger has a higher heat transfer rate, effectiveness, and overall heat transfer coefficient and therefore has more performance capability for the counter-flow configuration. The overall heat transfer coefficient increased as the flow rate increased for both configurations. Importantly, as a result of this project, Mechanical Engineering students can now have hands-on laboratory experience on how the double pipe heat exchanger works.</p> C. E. Ebieto, R. R. Ana, O. E. Nyong, E. G. Saturday Copyright (c) 2020 C. E. Ebieto, R. R. Ana, O. E. Oku, E. G. Saturday http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/1950 Sun, 08 Nov 2020 05:07:52 -0500 Design Analysis of a Portable Manual Tyre Changer https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2224 <p>In this paper, an efficient, affordable, and portable manual automobile tyre changing tool was designed. The tool operates on the principle of second-class levers, where the load to be overcome is situated between the fulcrum and the effort point. The mechanical advantage (MA) of the bead breaker arm and pry bar assembly of the tool was determined to be 11.5. The standard tube size of the bead breaker arm that can withstand stress due to bending moment was determined to be a 2” (50mm) diameter Schedule 80 steel tube. Also, the dimensions of the standard hexagonal bolts to be used at the fulcrum and load point of the bead breaker arm are M12 × 1.5 × 75 mm, while the standard size of hexagonal nuts to be used with the bolts is M12 × 1.5 mm with a height of 10mm. Moreover, the mechanical advantage (MA) of the mount/demount arm and pry bar assembly of the tool was determined to be 5.22. Also, by comparing the angles of twist of two sizes of the mount/demount arm when the tool is used in mounting or demounting a tyre on a 16” × 7” wheel rim, the standard size of the mount/demount arm that can withstand stresses due to bending moment and torsional moment was determined to be a 60mm × 60mm × 5mm square tube. The cost of materials needed to fabricate the tyre changer summed up to ₦21,000. Ergo, the design provides an alternative portable and relatively affordable tyre changing tool that can be afforded by tyre technicians across Nigeria, and other developing or underdeveloped countries.</p> Ovundah King Wofuru-Nyenke Copyright (c) 2020 Ovundah King Wofuru-Nyenke http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2224 Tue, 10 Nov 2020 07:35:43 -0500 Lateral-Torsional Buckling Strength of Two-Span Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Beams https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2211 <p>This paper presents the outcome of a study of two-span glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) I-section beams susceptible to lateral-torsional buckling when subjected to gradually increasing concentrated vertical load(s) in the presence of two different types of lateral bracing schemes. It is found that loading one span results in a smaller buckling load as compared with the cases with loading in both spans regardless of the type of bracing scheme used. Also, the study shows that the addition of midspan braces for the GFRP beams results in up to 5.5 times increase in the buckling load capacity.</p> Mojtaba B. Sirjani, Zia Razzaq Copyright (c) 2020 Mojtaba B. Sirjani, Zia Razzaq http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2211 Thu, 12 Nov 2020 03:36:47 -0500 Characterization of Multi-Drug Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria Present in Fresh Leafy & Salad Vegetables in Dhaka, Bangladesh https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2212 <p>This study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of fresh raw and unwashed leafy and salad vegetables in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Six different types of samples (red amaranth, spinach, carrot, radish, tomato, and cucumber) were collected in pre-sterilized zip-lock bags from various local markets in Dhaka. All samples were transported to the Centre of Excellence for Global Health Research Laboratory of Primeasia University at earliest convenience. Samples were enriched in Nutrient Broth media and were then cultured on selective media for isolation purpose. Serial dilution was performed for the total viable count. Biochemical and carbohydrate profiling was conducted for the presumptive identification of the isolates. Commercial antibiotic discs were used for antibiogram by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar medium. The total microbial load ranged from 8x10<sup>7</sup> to 1.70x10<sup>8</sup>. Total 36 isolates were identified, having 7 differentorganisms. The most predominant organism was Vibrio sp. (23%) followed by Klebsiella sp.(20%), Acinetobacter sp. (19%), Pseudomonas sp. (19%), Salmonella sp. (8%), Moraxella sp.(8%) and Escherichia coli (3%). 11% of the Vibrio sp. isolates were V. cholerae, found from 4 samples. No presence of V. cholerae was observed in the tomatosamples. E. coli was observed only in Carrot sample. Antibiotics from 7 different groups were tested against the organisms among which Imipenem showed the highest sensitivity (86%). Following Ceftriaxone (100%), Nitrofurantoin (94%), Erythromycin (89%) and Amoxicillin (83%) had the highest resistance against the isolated organisms. Moreover, most of the isolates showed a multi-drug resistance pattern where they were resistant to at least four drugs. Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in raw unwashed vegetables can cause potential adverse health effects and therefore the consumers need to be conscious about the matter.</p> Shahrin Akter Aurin, Sohana Parvin Chowdhury, Maruf Abony, Jarin Rifa, Avijit Banik, Aneeka Nawar Fatema, Oshin Ghurnee, Zakaria Ahmed Copyright (c) 2020 Shahrin Akter Aurin, Sohana Parvin Chowdhury, Maruf Abony, Jarin Rifa, Avijit Banik, Aneeka Nawar Fatema, Oshin Ghurnee, Zakaria Ahmed http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2212 Fri, 13 Nov 2020 00:00:00 -0500 Artificial Intelligence Techniques for Information Security in 5G IoT Environments https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2210 <p>The development of the telecommunication networks observed in present and future time is impressive. Today we witness rapid implementation of 5G networks. We can say that this actually is the moment when (artificial intelligence) AI enters at small door but in the beyond 5G world it is expected to have the prime role in smart operation, management and maintenance of non-software defined networking (SDN), network function virtualization (NFV) and especially at SDN and NFV aware networks. Number of standardization body’s and work groups are focused in a way to create a framework that will define the future use of AI and security standards necessary to exist in order to create health environment for the next generation telecommunication infrastructure. In the wireless world AI/Machine learning (ML) has great potential to shake the way we operate and to become foundation of the transformation that leads to the next industrial revolution. Network virtualization gives flexibility and freedom of the telco operators to choose the hardware and network topology they need for AI/ML platforms and big data sets. 5G and IoT create positive environment for AI and ML development and usage. As the network requirements are developed and the number of the users raises, gains are expected to grow with the number of variables and the interactions among them so it becomes impossible to relay on humans to control the network for increased number of variables and this is why AI with ML and automation become beneficial and necessity to run the future networks. AI generally is defined as capacity of mind or ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills while ML is defined as learning that does not require explicit programming. Combined usage of AI and ML can optimize almost any component of the wireless network, this does not mean that it should be used everywhere mainly because at the end of the day the cost benefit analysis of its usage must be positive. Smart operation, management and infrastructure maintenance (SOMM) networks are defined as: Intelligent, data driven, integrated and agile. Today AI is introduced but in future it will represent the network engine. It is interesting to mention that network security must be upgraded because the network will provide services for massive number of IoT devices that will have variety of functions and requests. AI/ML can improve the security services and to be used in order to elevate them at advanced level. In this text we focus our attention at AI/ML and security scenarios defined for IoT in 5G environment.</p> Ivan Petrov, Toni Janevski Copyright (c) 2020 Ivan Petrov, Toni Janevski http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2210 Fri, 13 Nov 2020 16:16:14 -0500 Dynamic Analysis of Encastre Beams by Modification of the System’s Stiffness Distribution https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2220 <p>Numerical and energy methods are used to dynamically analyze beams and complex structures. Hamilton’s principle gives exact results but cannot be easily applied in frames and complex structures. Lagrange’s equations can easily be applied in complex structures by lumping the continuous masses at selected nodes. However, this would alter the mass distribution of the system, thus introducing errors in the results of the dynamic analysis. This error can be corrected by making a corresponding modification in the systems’ stiffness matrix. This was achieved by simulating a beam with uniformly distributed mass with the force equilibrium equations. The lumped mass structures were simulated with the equations of motion. The continuous systems were analyzed using the Hamilton’s principle and the vector of nodal forces {<em>P</em>} causing vibration obtained. The nodal forces and displacements were then substituted into the equations of motion to obtain the modified stiffness values as functions of a set of stiffness modification factors. When the stiffness distribution of the system was modified by means of these stiffness modification factors, it was possible to predict accurately the natural fundamental frequencies of the lumped mass encastre beam irrespective of the position or number of lumped masses.</p> V. O. Okonkwo, C. H. Aginam, C. M. O. Nwaiwu Copyright (c) 2020 V. O. Okonkwo, C. H. Aginam, C. M. O. Nwaiwu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2220 Sat, 14 Nov 2020 09:22:59 -0500 Modelling Flow Behavior of Gas Leakage from Buried Pipelineu https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2117 <p class="IndexTerms"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size: 10.0pt;">Risks in gas transportation are usually comprised of losses of the valuable gas, fire, explosion, and destruction to the environment. The safety of this infrastructure especially flammable gas pipelines is of great importance due to potential associated risks when leakage happens. An accurate understanding of the dispersion characteristics of the leaked gas from the underground pipe is of great importance. A gas leaking model from the buried pipeline was established based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique, to simulate the situation. At the incidence of leakage, gas will propagate out and cause changes in flow behavior, which will prompt the detectors. The leakage position influences significantly much on the strength of leak signals to be detected at the ground surface. Under the simulation process, the double leakage pipeline model was involved. The variation of flow parameters inside the pipeline, outside pipeline, and the effect of leakage posi</span><span lang="EN-US">tion were depicted and analyzed. </span></p> Petro Ndalila, Yuxing Li, Cuiwei Liu Copyright (c) 2020 Petro Ndalila, Yuxing Li, Cuiwei Liu http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2117 Mon, 16 Nov 2020 14:25:50 -0500 Multi-Modal Natural Frequency Response of Utility Transmission Tapered Wood Poles Under Various Soil Foundation Conditions https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2054 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Studied herein is the multi-modal natural frequency response of utility transmission tapered wood poles under various soil foundation conditions. Strong winds and hurricanes in various parts of the world have resulted in collapse of such utility poles and have resulted in the disruption of electrical distribution systems in addition to creating hazardous conditions for the public. To avoid the development of resonance under such dynamic loading, the multi-modal natural vibration of the utility poles first needs to be understood in the presence of practical soil foundation conditions. To capture the soil-structure interaction effects on the multi-modal frequencies, a SAP2000 dynamic finite element model is created in which the foundation soil stiffness is characterized by means of a series of ‘soil springs’ below the ground level. The properties of the soil springs vary with types of foundation soils and depths. Three types of foundation soils are considered, namely sandy, clayey soils and Granite (Rock). The results are compared to a standard fixed base model. It is found that the fundamental natural frequencies decreased by 52%, 37%, and 3% for sandy, clayey soils and granite, respectively, when compared to fixed base model. It was observed that there was an increase in the frequencies of the embedded utility poles in clay and granite, when compared to those with the fixed based after the 1st mode whereas, poles embedded in sandy soils showed increase in modal frequencies after the 3rd mode. The 10th mode appears to be a starting point of modal frequency convergence, while an apparent convergence occurs after the 20th mode. The convergent modal frequency was about 740 Hz for the Class H1 utility pole. However, there was a significant increase in the higher modal frequencies such as nearly 55% at the 20th mode, in all soil types when compared to the fixed base model.</span></p> Ramani Ayakannu, Zia Razzaq Copyright (c) 2020 Ramani Ayakannu, Zia Razzaq http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2054 Thu, 19 Nov 2020 07:34:19 -0500 Evaluation of the Behavior of The Physical and Mechanical Properties of Green Concrete Exposed to Magnesium Sulfate https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2241 <p>In the present research work, four concrete mixtures were designed according to the ACI 211.1 method, the first as a control mixture, with 100% CPC, and the remaining three elaborated with partial replacement of the CPC by combinations of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash and Silica Fume (SCBA-SF) in 10%, 20% and 30% (Green Concrete). The tests carried out on the four mixtures were physical properties (Slump, Temperature, Density) and mechanical properties as Compressive Strength (F'c) and Modulus of Elasticity, according to the ASTM and ONNCCE standards, the study specimens were exposed in water, as a control medium and a 3.5% solution of MgSO<sub>4</sub> as an aggressive medium for a period of 28 days. The results obtained indicate a good performance of the Green Concrete in comparison with the control mixture, in particular the Green Concrete made with 10% and 20% substitution of CPC by SCBA-SF.</p> Laura Landa-Ruiz, Hilda Ariza-Figueroa, Griselda Santiago-Hurtado, Victor Moreno-Landeros, Raúl Alberto López Meraz, Rafael Villegas-Apaez, Sabino Márquez-Montero, René Croche, Miguel Angel Baltazar-Zamora Copyright (c) 2020 Laura Landa-Ruiz, Hilda Ariza-Figueroa, Griselda Santiago-Hurtado, Victor Moreno-Landeros, Raúl Alberto López Meraz, Rafael Villegas-Apaez, Sabino Márquez-Montero, René Croche, Miguel Angel Baltazar-Zamora http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2241 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 07:33:11 -0500 Effect of Water Injection into Aero-derivative Gas Turbine Combustors on NOx Reduction https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2180 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) generated from gas turbines causes enormous harm to human health and the environment. As a result, different methods have been employed to reduce NOx produced from gas turbine combustion process. One of such technique is the injection of water or steam into the combustion chamber to reduce the flame temperature. A twin shaft aero-derivative gas turbine was modelled and simulated using GASTURB simulation software. The engine was modelled after the GE LM2500 class of gas turbine engines. Water injection into the gas turbine combustor was simulated by implanting water-to-fuel ratios of 0 to 0.8, in an increasing order of 0.2. The results show that when water-to-fuel ratio was increased, the Nox severity index reduced. While heat rate and fuel flow increased with water-to-fuel ratio (injection flow rate).</span></p> Roupa Agbadede, Biweri Kainga Copyright (c) 2020 Roupa Agbadede, Biweri Kainga http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2180 Sat, 21 Nov 2020 07:57:36 -0500 Preliminary Re-design of an Axial Turbine in an Existing Engine to Meet the Increased Load Demand https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2141 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">This work presents a preliminary design of an axial turbine section in an industrial gas turbine. The design was necessitated following the need to provide a gas turbine of a power output in the range of 48 to 60MW for a mini-city harbouring an oil rig, which was not possible with the old engine. The turbine section is designed to produce a power capable of driving the compressor as well as produce a useful power for electricity. Using proprietary gas turbine performance simulation software called TURBOMATCH and a computer program written in Microsoft Excel, a redesign of the axial turbine component was achieved. Consequent upon redesigning the axial turbine, a preliminary analysis was carried out to ascertain the new turbine stages introduced. The analysis revealed that when one or two turbine stage(s) was used for new engine, it proved unsatisfactory as the blade loading coefficient and the flow efficiency were both beyond the limit acceptable for an optimum performance. A three stage turbine was finally employed having provided a loading coefficient of 2.1, 1.9 and 1.7 for the first, second and the last stages respectively.</span></p> Roupa Agbadede, Dennis Uwakwe, Isaiah Allison Copyright (c) 2020 Roupa Agbadede, Dennis Uwakwe, Isaiah Allison http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2141 Tue, 24 Nov 2020 14:07:07 -0500 Maximally Flat IIR Fullband Differentiators with Flat Group Delay Responses https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2238 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">A new design method for maximally flat IIR fullband differentiators with flat group delay responses is derived in this paper. The design method starts from the flatness conditions of magnitude response and group delay response at the origin. After mathematical manipulations it shows that presented design method reduces to solving the system of linear equations. By increasing the orders of polynomials in numerator and denominator, degrees of flatness are increased, that is improvement in magnitude responses and group delay responses in terms of flatness is obtained. </span></p> Slavisa Ilić, Ahmad Mohammed Salih, Majid Hamid Abdullah, Dragiša Milić Copyright (c) 2020 Slavisa Ilić, Ahmad Mohammed Salih, Majid Hamid Abdullah, Dragiša Milić http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2238 Wed, 25 Nov 2020 07:29:34 -0500 Assessment of Efficiency and Sustainability of Housing Plan in Khartoum https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2236 <p>This study aims to investigate the efficiency and adequacy of Sudan Housing Plan that aims to attain the goal of the provision of comfortable and affordable houses for those who get a low income. Two districts were chosen as a study area. Alazhari Block 3 and Alawda housing project located in the south of Khartoum. BK3 representing the sites and service brand, furthermore, Alawda represents core buildings (flats) type. Both areas have been monitored for 16 years (2004 - 2020) using satellite imageries, local services committee queries, and field surveying. The study showed that only 34% percent of the 678 parcels of BK3 was built up and only 3% of the buildings were occupied for 30 years, suffering the deficiency of basic services, while 100% of Alawda 1216 flats were built and occupied with full services in 3 years. This gives the credit of efficiency and adequacy to the core type on the site and services type.</p> Abdelrahim Elhag Copyright (c) 2020 Abdelrahim Elhag http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2236 Wed, 25 Nov 2020 07:34:58 -0500 Next Steps Might Be Considered by Joe Biden for the Development of International Trade Law https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2234 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The United States of America is a part of the globalization of international trade law. The USA is known as a leading global trader among all nations. The President of the USA plays a vital role in the development of international trade law. On 8 November 2016, Donald Trump was elected as president of the United States of America. Donald Trump engaged in different trade deals and policies with different countries and international institutions. The trade deals and policies are withdrawal from TPP, reshaping NAFTA, reforming WTO, and imposing tariffs on foreign goods. On 8 November 2020, CNN commented, Joe Biden will be the next president of the USA. Many scholars expressed different thoughts relating to the reforming international trade law by Joe Biden. The main aim of Joe Biden will be to remove trade barriers and end artificial trade wars with different foreign nations. My research will suggest how Joe Biden may overcome these issues for the betterment of the international trade law around the world.</span></p> Md. Habib Alam Copyright (c) 2020 Md. Habib Alam http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2234 Wed, 25 Nov 2020 07:40:29 -0500 Maintenance Management Regime for Off-Grid Solar PV Renewable Energy System in Nigeria https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2233 <p>The perennial inadequate power supply problem in Nigeria, the worldwide call for green energy and the unavailability of grid electrical supply or difficulty in accessing it have created a need for the adoption of renewable energy such as solar PV systems. PV systems have a lifespan ranging from 10 to 25 years if well maintained but it has been observed that PV systems do not last up to their useful lifespan in Nigeria. A preliminary survey carried out showed that 71.2% of sample did not carry out any maintenance on their PV installations, 85.7% agreed that a lack of maintenance was responsible for their nonfunctional PV systems and 95% of the respondents agreed that there was a lack of maintenance on PV installations in Nigeria. A maintenance regime was developed for PV systems whereby a maintenance personnel is appointed to carry out routine or breakdown maintenance on solar panels, charge controller, battery, inverter, and cabling. The regime starts with turning off power coming from the solar panels. The maintenance of the solar panels follows; next is maintenance on all cable wiring and terminations. After all cable terminations have been checked, the battery maintenance follows. The charge controller is then checked for maintenance and subsequently, power from solar panels can be switched on to restore charging. Two protective installations were recommended in the maintenance regime namely the installation of earthing and DC circuit breakers to protect the solar system installation.</p> Zacchaeus A. Adetona, Joel Ogunyemi, Irmiya Bitrus Copyright (c) 2020 Zacchaeus A. Adetona, Joel Ogunyemi, Irmiya Bitrus http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://ejers.org/index.php/ejers/article/view/2233 Fri, 27 Nov 2020 05:39:51 -0500